TY - CONF
AB - The optimization of multilayer neural networks typically leads to a solution
with zero training error, yet the landscape can exhibit spurious local minima
and the minima can be disconnected. In this paper, we shed light on this
phenomenon: we show that the combination of stochastic gradient descent (SGD)
and over-parameterization makes the landscape of multilayer neural networks
approximately connected and thus more favorable to optimization. More
specifically, we prove that SGD solutions are connected via a piecewise linear
path, and the increase in loss along this path vanishes as the number of
neurons grows large. This result is a consequence of the fact that the
parameters found by SGD are increasingly dropout stable as the network becomes
wider. We show that, if we remove part of the neurons (and suitably rescale the
remaining ones), the change in loss is independent of the total number of
neurons, and it depends only on how many neurons are left. Our results exhibit
a mild dependence on the input dimension: they are dimension-free for two-layer
networks and depend linearly on the dimension for multilayer networks. We
validate our theoretical findings with numerical experiments for different
architectures and classification tasks.
AU - Shevchenko, Alexander
AU - Mondelli, Marco
ID - 9198
T2 - Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning
TI - Landscape connectivity and dropout stability of SGD solutions for over-parameterized neural networks
VL - 119
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Rhombic dodecahedron is a space filling polyhedron which represents the close packing of spheres in 3D space and the Voronoi structures of the face centered cubic (FCC) lattice. In this paper, we describe a new coordinate system where every 3-integer coordinates grid point corresponds to a rhombic dodecahedron centroid. In order to illustrate the interest of the new coordinate system, we propose the characterization of 3D digital plane with its topological features, such as the interrelation between the thickness of the digital plane and the separability constraint we aim to obtain. We also present the characterization of 3D digital lines and study it as the intersection of multiple digital planes. Characterization of 3D digital sphere with relevant topological features is proposed as well along with the 48-symmetry appearing in the new coordinate system.
AU - Biswas, Ranita
AU - Largeteau-Skapin, Gaëlle
AU - Zrour, Rita
AU - Andres, Eric
ID - 9249
IS - 1
JF - Mathematical Morphology - Theory and Applications
SN - 2353-3390
TI - Digital objects in rhombic dodecahedron grid
VL - 4
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We call a multigraph non-homotopic if it can be drawn in the plane in such a way that no two edges connecting the same pair of vertices can be continuously transformed into each other without passing through a vertex, and no loop can be shrunk to its end-vertex in the same way. It is easy to see that a non-homotopic multigraph on n>1 vertices can have arbitrarily many edges. We prove that the number of crossings between the edges of a non-homotopic multigraph with n vertices and m>4n edges is larger than cm2n for some constant c>0 , and that this bound is tight up to a polylogarithmic factor. We also show that the lower bound is not asymptotically sharp as n is fixed and m⟶∞ .
AU - Pach, János
AU - Tardos, Gábor
AU - Tóth, Géza
ID - 9299
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - 28th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization
TI - Crossings between non-homotopic edges
VL - 12590
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The search for biologically faithful synaptic plasticity rules has resulted in a large body of models. They are usually inspired by – and fitted to – experimental data, but they rarely produce neural dynamics that serve complex functions. These failures suggest that current plasticity models are still under-constrained by existing data. Here, we present an alternative approach that uses meta-learning to discover plausible synaptic plasticity rules. Instead of experimental data, the rules are constrained by the functions they implement and the structure they are meant to produce. Briefly, we parameterize synaptic plasticity rules by a Volterra expansion and then use supervised learning methods (gradient descent or evolutionary strategies) to minimize a problem-dependent loss function that quantifies how effectively a candidate plasticity rule transforms an initially random network into one with the desired function. We first validate our approach by re-discovering previously described plasticity rules, starting at the single-neuron level and “Oja’s rule”, a simple Hebbian plasticity rule that captures the direction of most variability of inputs to a neuron (i.e., the first principal component). We expand the problem to the network level and ask the framework to find Oja’s rule together with an anti-Hebbian rule such that an initially random two-layer firing-rate network will recover several principal components of the input space after learning. Next, we move to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons with plastic inhibitory afferents. We train for rules that achieve a target firing rate by countering tuned excitation. Our algorithm discovers a specific subset of the manifold of rules that can solve this task. Our work is a proof of principle of an automated and unbiased approach to unveil synaptic plasticity rules that obey biological constraints and can solve complex functions.
AU - Confavreux, Basile J
AU - Zenke, Friedemann
AU - Agnes, Everton J.
AU - Lillicrap, Timothy
AU - Vogels, Tim P
ID - 9633
SN - 1049-5258
T2 - Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
TI - A meta-learning approach to (re)discover plasticity rules that carve a desired function into a neural network
VL - 33
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Second-order information, in the form of Hessian- or Inverse-Hessian-vector products, is a fundamental tool for solving optimization problems. Recently, there has been significant interest in utilizing this information in the context of deep
neural networks; however, relatively little is known about the quality of existing approximations in this context. Our work examines this question, identifies issues with existing approaches, and proposes a method called WoodFisher to compute a faithful and efficient estimate of the inverse Hessian. Our main application is to neural network compression, where we build on the classic Optimal Brain Damage/Surgeon framework. We demonstrate that WoodFisher significantly outperforms popular state-of-the-art methods for oneshot pruning. Further, even when iterative, gradual pruning is allowed, our method results in a gain in test accuracy over the state-of-the-art approaches, for standard image classification datasets such as ImageNet ILSVRC. We examine how our method can be extended to take into account first-order information, as well as
illustrate its ability to automatically set layer-wise pruning thresholds and perform compression in the limited-data regime. The code is available at the following link, https://github.com/IST-DASLab/WoodFisher.
AU - Singh, Sidak Pal
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
ID - 9632
SN - 10495258
T2 - Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
TI - WoodFisher: Efficient second-order approximation for neural network compression
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Various kinds of data are routinely represented as discrete probability distributions. Examples include text documents summarized by histograms of word occurrences and images represented as histograms of oriented gradients. Viewing a discrete probability distribution as a point in the standard simplex of the appropriate dimension, we can understand collections of such objects in geometric and topological terms. Importantly, instead of using the standard Euclidean distance, we look into dissimilarity measures with information-theoretic justification, and we develop the theory needed for applying topological data analysis in this setting. In doing so, we emphasize constructions that enable the usage of existing computational topology software in this context.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Virk, Ziga
AU - Wagner, Hubert
ID - 9630
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Computational Geometry
TI - Topological data analysis in information space
VL - 11
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The ability to leverage large-scale hardware parallelism has been one of the key enablers of the accelerated recent progress in machine learning. Consequently, there has been considerable effort invested into developing efficient parallel variants of classic machine learning algorithms. However, despite the wealth of knowledge on parallelization, some classic machine learning algorithms often prove hard to parallelize efficiently while maintaining convergence. In this paper, we focus on efficient parallel algorithms for the key machine learning task of inference on graphical models, in particular on the fundamental belief propagation algorithm. We address the challenge of efficiently parallelizing this classic paradigm by showing how to leverage scalable relaxed schedulers in this context. We present an extensive empirical study, showing that our approach outperforms previous parallel belief propagation implementations both in terms of scalability and in terms of wall-clock convergence time, on a range of practical applications.
AU - Aksenov, Vitaly
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Korhonen, Janne
ID - 9631
SN - 10495258
T2 - Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
TI - Scalable belief propagation via relaxed scheduling
VL - 33
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Game of Life is a simple and elegant model to study dynamical system over networks. The model consists of a graph where every vertex has one of two types, namely, dead or alive. A configuration is a mapping of the vertices to the types. An update rule describes how the type of a vertex is updated given the types of its neighbors. In every round, all vertices are updated synchronously, which leads to a configuration update. While in general, Game of Life allows a broad range of update rules, we focus on two simple families of update rules, namely, underpopulation and overpopulation, that model several interesting dynamics studied in the literature. In both settings, a dead vertex requires at least a desired number of live neighbors to become alive. For underpopulation (resp., overpopulation), a live vertex requires at least (resp. at most) a desired number of live neighbors to remain alive. We study the basic computation problems, e.g., configuration reachability, for these two families of rules. For underpopulation rules, we show that these problems can be solved in polynomial time, whereas for overpopulation rules they are PSPACE-complete.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Svoboda, Jakub
ID - 8533
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Simplified game of life: Algorithms and complexity
VL - 170
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A regular language L of finite words is composite if there are regular languages L₁,L₂,…,L_t such that L = ⋂_{i = 1}^t L_i and the index (number of states in a minimal DFA) of every language L_i is strictly smaller than the index of L. Otherwise, L is prime. Primality of regular languages was introduced and studied in [O. Kupferman and J. Mosheiff, 2015], where the complexity of deciding the primality of the language of a given DFA was left open, with a doubly-exponential gap between the upper and lower bounds. We study primality for unary regular languages, namely regular languages with a singleton alphabet. A unary language corresponds to a subset of ℕ, making the study of unary prime languages closer to that of primality in number theory. We show that the setting of languages is richer. In particular, while every composite number is the product of two smaller numbers, the number t of languages necessary to decompose a composite unary language induces a strict hierarchy. In addition, a primality witness for a unary language L, namely a word that is not in L but is in all products of languages that contain L and have an index smaller than L’s, may be of exponential length. Still, we are able to characterize compositionality by structural properties of a DFA for L, leading to a LogSpace algorithm for primality checking of unary DFAs.
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Mazzocchi, Nicolas
ID - 8534
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Unary prime languages
VL - 170
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove some recent experimental observations of Dan Reznik concerning periodic billiard orbits in ellipses. For example, the sum of cosines of the angles of a periodic billiard polygon remains constant in the 1-parameter family of such polygons (that exist due to the Poncelet porism). In our proofs, we use geometric and complex analytic methods.
AU - Akopyan, Arseniy
AU - Schwartz, Richard
AU - Tabachnikov, Serge
ID - 8538
JF - European Journal of Mathematics
SN - 2199-675X
TI - Billiards in ellipses revisited
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The brain vasculature supplies neurons with glucose and oxygen, but little is known about how vascular plasticity contributes to brain function. Using longitudinal in vivo imaging, we reported that a substantial proportion of blood vessels in the adult brain sporadically occluded and regressed. Their regression proceeded through sequential stages of blood-flow occlusion, endothelial cell collapse, relocation or loss of pericytes, and retraction of glial endfeet. Regressing vessels were found to be widespread in mouse, monkey and human brains. Both brief occlusions of the middle cerebral artery and lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation induced an increase of vessel regression. Blockage of leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells alleviated LPS-induced vessel regression. We further revealed that blood vessel regression caused a reduction of neuronal activity due to a dysfunction in mitochondrial metabolism and glutamate production. Our results elucidate the mechanism of vessel regression and its role in neuronal function in the adult brain.
AU - Gao, Xiaofei
AU - Li, Jun-Liszt
AU - Chen, Xingjun
AU - Ci, Bo
AU - Chen, Fei
AU - Lu, Nannan
AU - Shen, Bo
AU - Zheng, Lijun
AU - Jia, Jie-Min
AU - Yi, Yating
AU - Zhang, Shiwen
AU - Shi, Ying-Chao
AU - Shi, Kaibin
AU - Propson, Nicholas E
AU - Huang, Yubin
AU - Poinsatte, Katherine
AU - Zhang, Zhaohuan
AU - Yue, Yuanlei
AU - Bosco, Dale B
AU - Lu, Ying-mei
AU - Yang, Shi-bing
AU - Adams, Ralf H.
AU - Lindner, Volkhard
AU - Huang, Fen
AU - Wu, Long-Jun
AU - Zheng, Hui
AU - Han, Feng
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Stowe, Ann M.
AU - Peng, Bo
AU - Margeta, Marta
AU - Wang, Xiaoqun
AU - Liu, Qiang
AU - Körbelin, Jakob
AU - Trepel, Martin
AU - Lu, Hui
AU - Zhou, Bo O.
AU - Zhao, Hu
AU - Su, Wenzhi
AU - Bachoo, Robert M.
AU - Ge, Woo-ping
ID - 8616
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Reduction of neuronal activity mediated by blood-vessel regression in the brain
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - A look at international activities on Open Science reveals a broad spectrum from individual institutional policies to national action plans. The present Recommendations for a National Open Science Strategy in Austria are based on these international initiatives and present practical considerations for their coordinated implementation with regard to strategic developments in research, technology and innovation (RTI) in Austria until 2030. They are addressed to all relevant actors in the RTI system, in particular to Research Performing Organisations, Research Funding Organisations, Research Policy, memory institutions such as Libraries and Researchers. The recommendation paper was developed from 2018 to 2020 by the OANA working group "Open Science Strategy" and published for the first time in spring 2020 for a public consultation. The now available final version of the recommendation document, which contains feedback and comments from the consultation, is intended to provide an impetus for further discussion and implementation of Open Science in Austria and serves as a contribution and basis for a potential national Open Science Strategy in Austria. The document builds on the diverse expertise of the authors (academia, administration, library and archive, information technology, science policy, funding system, etc.) and reflects their personal experiences and opinions.
AU - Mayer, Katja
AU - Rieck, Katharina
AU - Reichmann, Stefan
AU - Danowski, Patrick
AU - Graschopf, Anton
AU - König, Thomas
AU - Kraker, Peter
AU - Lehner, Patrick
AU - Reckling, Falk
AU - Ross-Hellauer, Tony
AU - Spichtinger, Daniel
AU - Tzatzanis, Michalis
AU - Schürz, Stefanie
ID - 8695
TI - Empfehlungen für eine nationale Open Science Strategie in Österreich / Recommendations for a National Open Science Strategy in Austria
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - As part of the Austrian Transition to Open Access (AT2OA) project, subproject TP1-B is working on designing a monitoring solution for the output of Open Access publications in Austria. This report on a potential Open Access monitoring approach in Austria is one of the results of these efforts and can serve as a basis for discussion on an international level.
AU - Danowski, Patrick
AU - Ferus, Andreas
AU - Hikl, Anna-Laetitia
AU - McNeill, Gerda
AU - Miniberger, Clemens
AU - Reding, Steve
AU - Zarka, Tobias
AU - Zojer, Michael
ID - 8706
IS - 2
JF - Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare
TI - „Recommendation“ for the further procedure for open access monitoring. Deliverable of the AT2OA subproject TP1-B
VL - 73
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - This data collection contains the transport data for figures presented in the supplementary material of "Enhancement of Proximity Induced Superconductivity in Planar Germanium" by K. Aggarwal, et. al.
The measurements were done using Labber Software and the data is stored in the hdf5 file format. The files can be opened using either the Labber Log Browser (https://labber.org/overview/) or Labber Python API (http://labber.org/online-doc/api/LogFile.html).
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
ID - 8834
TI - Enhancement of proximity induced superconductivity in planar Germanium
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) technology enables concomitant fluorescent cell labeling and induction of uniparental chromosome disomy (UPD) with single-cell resolution. In UPD, imprinted genes are either overexpressed 2-fold or are not expressed. Here, the MADM platform is utilized to probe imprinting phenotypes at the transcriptional level. This protocol highlights major steps for the generation and isolation of projection neurons and astrocytes with MADM-induced UPD from mouse cerebral cortex for downstream single-cell and low-input sample RNA-sequencing experiments.
For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Laukoter et al. (2020b).
AU - Laukoter, Susanne
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 8978
IS - 3
JF - STAR Protocols
SN - 2666-1667
TI - Generation and isolation of single cells from mouse brain with mosaic analysis with double markers-induced uniparental chromosome disomy
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove that, for the binary erasure channel (BEC), the polar-coding paradigm gives rise to codes that not only approach the Shannon limit but do so under the best possible scaling of their block length as a function of the gap to capacity. This result exhibits the first known family of binary codes that attain both optimal scaling and quasi-linear complexity of encoding and decoding. Our proof is based on the construction and analysis of binary polar codes with large kernels. When communicating reliably at rates within ε>0 of capacity, the code length n often scales as O(1/εμ), where the constant μ is called the scaling exponent. It is known that the optimal scaling exponent is μ=2, and it is achieved by random linear codes. The scaling exponent of conventional polar codes (based on the 2×2 kernel) on the BEC is μ=3.63. This falls far short of the optimal scaling guaranteed by random codes. Our main contribution is a rigorous proof of the following result: for the BEC, there exist ℓ×ℓ binary kernels, such that polar codes constructed from these kernels achieve scaling exponent μ(ℓ) that tends to the optimal value of 2 as ℓ grows. We furthermore characterize precisely how large ℓ needs to be as a function of the gap between μ(ℓ) and 2. The resulting binary codes maintain the recursive structure of conventional polar codes, and thereby achieve construction complexity O(n) and encoding/decoding complexity O(nlogn).
AU - Fazeli, Arman
AU - Hassani, Hamed
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Vardy, Alexander
ID - 9002
IS - 9
JF - IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
SN - 0018-9448
TI - Binary linear codes with optimal scaling: Polar codes with large kernels
VL - 67
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We introduce LRT-NG, a set of techniques and an associated toolset that computes a reachtube (an over-approximation of the set of reachable states over a given time horizon) of a nonlinear dynamical system. LRT-NG significantly advances the state-of-the-art Langrangian Reachability and its associated tool LRT. From a theoretical perspective, LRT-NG is superior to LRT in three ways. First, it uses for the first time an analytically computed metric for the propagated ball which is proven to minimize the ball’s volume. We emphasize that the metric computation is the centerpiece of all bloating-based techniques. Secondly, it computes the next reachset as the intersection of two balls: one based on the Cartesian metric and the other on the new metric. While the two metrics were previously considered opposing approaches, their joint use considerably tightens the reachtubes. Thirdly, it avoids the "wrapping effect" associated with the validated integration of the center of the reachset, by optimally absorbing the interval approximation in the radius of the next ball. From a tool-development perspective, LRT-NG is superior to LRT in two ways. First, it is a standalone tool that no longer relies on CAPD. This required the implementation of the Lohner method and a Runge-Kutta time-propagation method. Secondly, it has an improved interface, allowing the input model and initial conditions to be provided as external input files. Our experiments on a comprehensive set of benchmarks, including two Neural ODEs, demonstrates LRT-NG’s superior performance compared to LRT, CAPD, and Flow*.
AU - Gruenbacher, Sophie
AU - Cyranka, Jacek
AU - Lechner, Mathias
AU - Islam, Md Ariful
AU - Smolka, Scott A.
AU - Grosu, Radu
ID - 9103
SN - 07431546
T2 - Proceedings of the 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
TI - Lagrangian reachtubes: The next generation
VL - 2020
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Bending-active structures are able to efficiently produce complex curved shapes from flat panels. The desired deformation of the panels derives from the proper selection of their elastic properties. Optimized panels, called FlexMaps, are designed such that, once they are bent and assembled, the resulting static equilibrium configuration matches a desired input 3D shape. The FlexMaps elastic properties are controlled by locally varying spiraling geometric mesostructures, which are optimized in size and shape to match specific bending requests, namely the global curvature of the target shape. The design pipeline starts from a quad mesh representing the input 3D shape, which defines the edge size and the total amount of spirals: every quad will embed one spiral. Then, an optimization algorithm tunes the geometry of the spirals by using a simplified pre-computed rod model. This rod model is derived from a non-linear regression algorithm which approximates the non-linear behavior of solid FEM spiral models subject to hundreds of load combinations. This innovative pipeline has been applied to the project of a lightweight plywood pavilion named FlexMaps Pavilion, which is a single-layer piecewise twisted arch that fits a bounding box of 3.90x3.96x3.25 meters. This case study serves to test the applicability of this methodology at the architectural scale. The structure is validated via FE analyses and the fabrication of the full scale prototype.
AU - Laccone, Francesco
AU - Malomo, Luigi
AU - Perez Rodriguez, Jesus
AU - Pietroni, Nico
AU - Ponchio, Federico
AU - Bickel, Bernd
AU - Cignoni, Paolo
ID - 9208
IS - 9
JF - SN Applied Sciences
TI - A bending-active twisted-arch plywood structure: Computational design and fabrication of the FlexMaps Pavilion
VL - 2
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Recent works have shown that gradient descent can find a global minimum for over-parameterized neural networks where the widths of all the hidden layers scale polynomially with N (N being the number of training samples). In this paper, we prove that, for deep networks, a single layer of width N following the input layer suffices to ensure a similar guarantee. In particular, all the remaining layers are allowed to have constant widths, and form a pyramidal topology. We show an application of our result to the widely used LeCun’s initialization and obtain an over-parameterization requirement for the single wide layer of order N2.
AU - Nguyen, Quynh
AU - Mondelli, Marco
ID - 9221
T2 - 34th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems
TI - Global convergence of deep networks with one wide layer followed by pyramidal topology
VL - 33
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Optimizing convolutional neural networks for fast inference has recently become an extremely active area of research. One of the go-to solutions in this context is weight pruning, which aims to reduce computational and memory footprint by removing large subsets of the connections in a neural network. Surprisingly, much less attention has been given to exploiting sparsity in the activation maps, which tend to be naturally sparse in many settings thanks to the structure of rectified linear (ReLU) activation functions. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of methods for maximizing the sparsity of the activations in a trained neural network, and show that, when coupled with an efficient sparse-input convolution algorithm, we can leverage this sparsity for significant performance gains. To induce highly sparse activation maps without accuracy loss, we introduce a new regularization technique, coupled with a new threshold-based sparsification method based on a parameterized activation function called Forced-Activation-Threshold Rectified Linear Unit (FATReLU). We examine the impact of our methods on popular image classification models, showing that most architectures can adapt to significantly sparser activation maps without any accuracy loss. Our second contribution is showing that these these compression gains can be translated into inference speedups: we provide a new algorithm to enable fast convolution operations over networks with sparse activations, and show that it can enable significant speedups for end-to-end inference on a range of popular models on the large-scale ImageNet image classification task on modern Intel CPUs, with little or no retraining cost.
AU - Kurtz, Mark
AU - Kopinsky, Justin
AU - Gelashvili, Rati
AU - Matveev, Alexander
AU - Carr, John
AU - Goin, Michael
AU - Leiserson, William
AU - Moore, Sage
AU - Nell, Bill
AU - Shavit, Nir
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
ID - 9415
SN - 2640-3498
T2 - 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2020
TI - Inducing and exploiting activation sparsity for fast neural network inference
VL - 119
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A working group, which was established within the Network of Repository Managers (RepManNet), has dealt with common certifications for repositories. In addition, current requirements of the research funding agencies FWF and EU were also taken into account. The Core Trust Seal was examined in more detail. For this purpose, a questionnaire was sent to those organizations that are already certified with CTS in Austria. The answers were summarized and evaluated anonymously. It is recommended to go for a repository certification. Moreover, the development of a DINI certificate in Austria is strongly suggested.
AU - Ernst, Doris
AU - Novotny, Gertraud
AU - Schönher, Eva Maria
ID - 7687
IS - 1
JF - Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare
SN - 1022-2588
TI - (Core Trust) Seal your repository!
VL - 73
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The family of feedback alignment (FA) algorithms aims to provide a more biologically motivated alternative to backpropagation (BP), by substituting the computations that are unrealistic to be implemented in physical brains. While FA algorithms have been shown to work well in practice, there is a lack of rigorous theory proofing their learning capabilities. Here we introduce the first feedback alignment algorithm with provable learning guarantees. In contrast to existing work, we do not require any assumption about the size or depth of the network except that it has a single output neuron, i.e., such as for binary classification tasks. We show that our FA algorithm can deliver its theoretical promises in practice, surpassing the learning performance of existing FA methods and matching backpropagation in binary classification tasks. Finally, we demonstrate the limits of our FA variant when the number of output neurons grows beyond a certain quantity.
AU - Lechner, Mathias
ID - 10672
T2 - 8th International Conference on Learning Representations
TI - Learning representations for binary-classification without backpropagation
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A natural approach to generative modeling of videos is to represent them as a composition of moving objects. Recent works model a set of 2D sprites over a slowly-varying background, but without considering the underlying 3D scene that
gives rise to them. We instead propose to model a video as the view seen while moving through a scene with multiple 3D objects and a 3D background. Our model is trained from monocular videos without any supervision, yet learns to
generate coherent 3D scenes containing several moving objects. We conduct detailed experiments on two datasets, going beyond the visual complexity supported by state-of-the-art generative approaches. We evaluate our method on
depth-prediction and 3D object detection---tasks which cannot be addressed by those earlier works---and show it out-performs them even on 2D instance segmentation and tracking.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 8188
SN - 9781713829546
T2 - 34th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems
TI - Unsupervised object-centric video generation and decomposition in 3D
VL - 33
ER -
TY - BOOK
AB - This booklet is a collection of abstracts presented at the AHPC conference.
ED - Schlögl, Alois
ED - Kiss, Janos
ED - Elefante, Stefano
ID - 7474
SN - 978-3-99078-004-6
TI - Austrian High-Performance-Computing meeting (AHPC2020)
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Quantization converts neural networks into low-bit fixed-point computations which can be carried out by efficient integer-only hardware, and is standard practice for the deployment of neural networks on real-time embedded devices. However, like their real-numbered counterpart, quantized networks are not immune to malicious misclassification caused by adversarial attacks. We investigate how quantization affects a network’s robustness to adversarial attacks, which is a formal verification question. We show that neither robustness nor non-robustness are monotonic with changing the number of bits for the representation and, also, neither are preserved by quantization from a real-numbered network. For this reason, we introduce a verification method for quantized neural networks which, using SMT solving over bit-vectors, accounts for their exact, bit-precise semantics. We built a tool and analyzed the effect of quantization on a classifier for the MNIST dataset. We demonstrate that, compared to our method, existing methods for the analysis of real-numbered networks often derive false conclusions about their quantizations, both when determining robustness and when detecting attacks, and that existing methods for quantized networks often miss attacks. Furthermore, we applied our method beyond robustness, showing how the number of bits in quantization enlarges the gender bias of a predictor for students’ grades.
AU - Giacobbe, Mirco
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Lechner, Mathias
ID - 7808
SN - 03029743
T2 - International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems
TI - How many bits does it take to quantize your neural network?
VL - 12079
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Isomanifolds are the generalization of isosurfaces to arbitrary dimension and codimension, i.e. manifolds defined as the zero set of some multivariate vector-valued smooth function f: ℝ^d → ℝ^(d-n). A natural (and efficient) way to approximate an isomanifold is to consider its Piecewise-Linear (PL) approximation based on a triangulation 𝒯 of the ambient space ℝ^d. In this paper, we give conditions under which the PL-approximation of an isomanifold is topologically equivalent to the isomanifold. The conditions are easy to satisfy in the sense that they can always be met by taking a sufficiently fine triangulation 𝒯. This contrasts with previous results on the triangulation of manifolds where, in arbitrary dimensions, delicate perturbations are needed to guarantee topological correctness, which leads to strong limitations in practice. We further give a bound on the Fréchet distance between the original isomanifold and its PL-approximation. Finally we show analogous results for the PL-approximation of an isomanifold with boundary.
AU - Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 7952
SN - 1868-8969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - The topological correctness of PL-approximations of isomanifolds
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).
AU - Wagner, Uli
AU - Welzl, Emo
ID - 7990
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In a straight-line embedded triangulation of a point set P in the plane, removing an inner edge and—provided the resulting quadrilateral is convex—adding the other diagonal is called an edge flip. The (edge) flip graph has all triangulations as vertices, and a pair of triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from each other by an edge flip. The goal of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the flip graph, with an emphasis on its connectivity.
For sets in general position, it is known that every triangulation allows at least edge flips (a tight bound) which gives the minimum degree of any flip graph for n points. We show that for every point set P in general position, the flip graph is at least -vertex connected. Somewhat more strongly, we show that the vertex connectivity equals the minimum degree occurring in the flip graph, i.e. the minimum number of flippable edges in any triangulation of P, provided P is large enough. Finally, we exhibit some of the geometry of the flip graph by showing that the flip graph can be covered by 1-skeletons of polytopes of dimension (products of associahedra).
A corresponding result ((n – 3)-vertex connectedness) can be shown for the bistellar flip graph of partial triangulations, i.e. the set of all triangulations of subsets of P which contain all extreme points of P. This will be treated separately in a second part.
AU - Wagner, Uli
AU - Welzl, Emo
ID - 7807
SN - 9781611975994
T2 - Proceedings of the Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
TI - Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part I: Edge flips)
VL - 2020-January
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The Mytilus complex of marine mussel species forms a mosaic of hybrid zones, found across temperate regions of the globe. This allows us to study "replicated" instances of secondary contact between closely-related species. Previous work on this complex has shown that local introgression is both widespread and highly heterogeneous, and has identified SNPs that are outliers of differentiation between lineages. Here, we developed an ancestry-informative panel of such SNPs. We then compared their frequencies in newly-sampled populations, including samples from within the hybrid zones, and parental populations at different distances from the contact. Results show that close to the hybrid zones, some outlier loci are near to fixation for the heterospecific allele, suggesting enhanced local introgression, or the local sweep of a shared ancestral allele. Conversely, genomic cline analyses, treating local parental populations as the reference, reveal a globally high concordance among loci, albeit with a few signals of asymmetric introgression. Enhanced local introgression at specific loci is consistent with the early transfer of adaptive variants after contact, possibly including asymmetric bi-stable variants (Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities), or haplotypes loaded with fewer deleterious mutations. Having escaped one barrier, however, these variants can be trapped or delayed at the next barrier, confining the introgression locally. These results shed light on the decay of species barriers during phases of contact.
AU - Simon, Alexis
AU - Fraisse, Christelle
AU - El Ayari, Tahani
AU - Liautard-Haag, Cathy
AU - Strelkov, Petr
AU - Welch, John
AU - Bierne, Nicolas
ID - 13073
TI - How do species barriers decay? concordance and local introgression in mosaic hybrid zones of mussels
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Domestication is a human-induced selection process that imprints the genomes of domesticated populations over a short evolutionary time scale, and that occurs in a given demographic context. Reconstructing historical gene flow, effective population size changes and their timing is therefore of fundamental interest to understand how plant demography and human selection jointly shape genomic divergence during domestication. Yet, the comparison under a single statistical framework of independent domestication histories across different crop species has been little evaluated so far. Thus, it is unclear whether domestication leads to convergent demographic changes that similarly affect crop genomes. To address this question, we used existing and new transcriptome data on three crop species of Solanaceae (eggplant, pepper and tomato), together with their close wild relatives. We fitted twelve demographic models of increasing complexity on the unfolded joint allele frequency spectrum for each wild/crop pair, and we found evidence for both shared and species-specific demographic processes between species. A convergent history of domestication with gene-flow was inferred for all three species, along with evidence of strong reduction in the effective population size during the cultivation stage of tomato and pepper. The absence of any reduction in size of the crop in eggplant stands out from the classical view of the domestication process; as does the existence of a “protracted period” of management before cultivation. Our results also suggest divergent management strategies of modern cultivars among species as their current demography substantially differs. Finally, the timing of domestication is species-specific and supported by the few historical records available.
AU - Arnoux, Stephanie
AU - Fraisse, Christelle
AU - Sauvage, Christopher
ID - 13065
TI - VCF files of synonymous SNPs related to: Genomic inference of complex domestication histories in three Solanaceae species
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Phenomenological relations such as Ohm’s or Fourier’s law have a venerable history in physics but are still scarce in biology. This situation restrains predictive theory. Here, we build on bacterial “growth laws,” which capture physiological feedback between translation and cell growth, to construct a minimal biophysical model for the combined action of ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Our model predicts drug interactions like antagonism or synergy solely from responses to individual drugs. We provide analytical results for limiting cases, which agree well with numerical results. We systematically refine the model by including direct physical interactions of different antibiotics on the ribosome. In a limiting case, our model provides a mechanistic underpinning for recent predictions of higher-order interactions that were derived using entropy maximization. We further refine the model to include the effects of antibiotics that mimic starvation and the presence of resistance genes. We describe the impact of a starvation-mimicking antibiotic on drug interactions analytically and verify it experimentally. Our extended model suggests a change in the type of drug interaction that depends on the strength of resistance, which challenges established rescaling paradigms. We experimentally show that the presence of unregulated resistance genes can lead to altered drug interaction, which agrees with the prediction of the model. While minimal, the model is readily adaptable and opens the door to predicting interactions of second and higher-order in a broad range of biological systems.
AU - Kavcic, Bor
ID - 8930
KW - Escherichia coli
KW - antibiotic combinations
KW - translation
KW - growth laws
KW - drug interactions
KW - bacterial physiology
KW - translation inhibitors
TI - Analysis scripts and research data for the paper "Minimal biophysical model of combined antibiotic action"
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This work analyzes the latency of the simplified successive cancellation (SSC) decoding scheme for polar codes proposed by Alamdar-Yazdi and Kschischang. It is shown that, unlike conventional successive cancellation decoding, where latency is linear in the block length, the latency of SSC decoding is sublinear. More specifically, the latency of SSC decoding is O(N 1−1/µ ), where N is the block length and µ is the scaling exponent of the channel, which captures the speed of convergence of the rate to capacity. Numerical results demonstrate the tightness of the bound and show that most of the latency reduction arises from the parallel decoding of subcodes of rate 0 and 1.
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Hashemi, Seyyed Ali
AU - Cioffi, John
AU - Goldsmith, Andrea
ID - 8536
SN - 21578095
T2 - IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings
TI - Simplified successive cancellation decoding of polar codes has sublinear latency
VL - 2020-June
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Gene expression levels are influenced by multiple coexisting molecular mechanisms. Some of these interactions, such as those of transcription factors and promoters have been studied extensively. However, predicting phenotypes of gene regulatory networks remains a major challenge. Here, we use a well-defined synthetic gene regulatory network to study how network phenotypes depend on local genetic context, i.e. the genetic neighborhood of a transcription factor and its relative position. We show that one gene regulatory network with fixed topology can display not only quantitatively but also qualitatively different phenotypes, depending solely on the local genetic context of its components. Our results demonstrate that changes in local genetic context can place a single transcriptional unit within two separate regulons without the need for complex regulatory sequences. We propose that relative order of individual transcriptional units, with its potential for combinatorial complexity, plays an important role in shaping phenotypes of gene regulatory networks.
AU - Nagy-Staron, Anna A
ID - 8951
KW - Gene regulatory networks
KW - Gene expression
KW - Escherichia coli
KW - Synthetic Biology
TI - Sequences of gene regulatory network permutations for the article "Local genetic context shapes the function of a gene regulatory network"
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Avvakumov, Sergey
AU - Wagner, Uli
AU - Mabillard, Isaac
AU - Skopenkov, A. B.
ID - 9308
IS - 6
JF - Russian Mathematical Surveys
SN - 0036-0279
TI - Eliminating higher-multiplicity intersections, III. Codimension 2
VL - 75
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study dynamical optimal transport metrics between density matricesassociated to symmetric Dirichlet forms on finite-dimensional C∗-algebras. Our settingcovers arbitrary skew-derivations and it provides a unified framework that simultaneously generalizes recently constructed transport metrics for Markov chains, Lindblad equations, and the Fermi Ornstein–Uhlenbeck semigroup. We develop a non-nommutative differential calculus that allows us to obtain non-commutative Ricci curvature bounds, logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, transport-entropy inequalities, andspectral gap estimates.
AU - Carlen, Eric A.
AU - Maas, Jan
ID - 6358
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 00224715
TI - Non-commutative calculus, optimal transport and functional inequalities in dissipative quantum systems
VL - 178
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - We study the Gromov waist in the sense of t-neighborhoods for measures in the Euclidean space, motivated by the famous theorem of Gromov about the waist of radially symmetric Gaussian measures. In particular, it turns our possible to extend Gromov’s original result to the case of not necessarily radially symmetric Gaussian measure. We also provide examples of measures having no t-neighborhood waist property, including a rather wide class
of compactly supported radially symmetric measures and their maps into the Euclidean space of dimension at least 2.
We use a simpler form of Gromov’s pancake argument to produce some estimates of t-neighborhoods of (weighted) volume-critical submanifolds in the spirit of the waist theorems, including neighborhoods of algebraic manifolds in the complex projective space. In the appendix of this paper we provide for reader’s convenience a more detailed explanation of the Caffarelli theorem that we use to handle not necessarily radially symmetric Gaussian
measures.
AU - Akopyan, Arseniy
AU - Karasev, Roman
ED - Klartag, Bo'az
ED - Milman, Emanuel
ID - 74
SN - 00758434
T2 - Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis
TI - Gromov's waist of non-radial Gaussian measures and radial non-Gaussian measures
VL - 2256
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The strong rate of convergence of the Euler-Maruyama scheme for nondegenerate SDEs with irregular drift coefficients is considered. In the case of α-Hölder drift in the recent literature the rate α/2 was proved in many related situations. By exploiting the regularising effect of the noise more efficiently, we show that the rate is in fact arbitrarily close to 1/2 for all α>0. The result extends to Dini continuous coefficients, while in d=1 also to all bounded measurable coefficients.
AU - Dareiotis, Konstantinos
AU - Gerencser, Mate
ID - 6359
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
TI - On the regularisation of the noise for the Euler-Maruyama scheme with irregular drift
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - An asymptotic formula is established for the number of rational points of bounded anticanonical height which lie on a certain Zariski dense subset of the biprojective hypersurface x1y21+⋯+x4y24=0 in ℙ3×ℙ3. This confirms the modified Manin conjecture for this variety, in which the removal of a thin set of rational points is allowed.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Heath Brown, Roger
ID - 179
IS - 16
JF - Duke Mathematical Journal
TI - Density of rational points on a quadric bundle in ℙ3×ℙ3
VL - 169
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We develop a geometric version of the circle method and use it to compute the compactly supported cohomology of the space of rational curves through a point on a smooth affine hypersurface of sufficiently low degree.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Sawin, Will
ID - 177
IS - 3
JF - Annals of Mathematics
TI - A geometric version of the circle method
VL - 191
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - While Hartree–Fock theory is well established as a fundamental approximation for interacting fermions, it has been unclear how to describe corrections to it due to many-body correlations. In this paper we start from the Hartree–Fock state given by plane waves and introduce collective particle–hole pair excitations. These pairs can be approximately described by a bosonic quadratic Hamiltonian. We use Bogoliubov theory to construct a trial state yielding a rigorous Gell-Mann–Brueckner–type upper bound to the ground state energy. Our result justifies the random-phase approximation in the mean-field scaling regime, for repulsive, regular interaction potentials.
AU - Benedikter, Niels P
AU - Nam, Phan Thành
AU - Porta, Marcello
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 6649
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Optimal upper bound for the correlation energy of a Fermi gas in the mean-field regime
VL - 374
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nearby grid cells have been observed to express a remarkable degree of long-rangeorder, which is often idealized as extending potentially to infinity. Yet their strict peri-odic firing and ensemble coherence are theoretically possible only in flat environments, much unlike the burrows which rodents usually live in. Are the symmetrical, coherent grid maps inferred in the lab relevant to chart their way in their natural habitat? We consider spheres as simple models of curved environments and waiting for the appropriate experiments to be performed, we use our adaptation model to predict what grid maps would emerge in a network with the same type of recurrent connections, which on the plane produce coherence among the units. We find that on the sphere such connections distort the maps that single grid units would express on their own, and aggregate them into clusters. When remapping to a different spherical environment, units in each cluster maintain only partial coherence, similar to what is observed in disordered materials, such as spin glasses.
AU - Stella, Federico
AU - Urdapilleta, Eugenio
AU - Luo, Yifan
AU - Treves, Alessandro
ID - 6796
IS - 4
JF - Hippocampus
SN - 10509631
TI - Partial coherence and frustration in self-organizing spherical grids
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In resource allocation games, selfish players share resources that are needed in order to fulfill their objectives. The cost of using a resource depends on the load on it. In the traditional setting, the players make their choices concurrently and in one-shot. That is, a strategy for a player is a subset of the resources. We introduce and study dynamic resource allocation games. In this setting, the game proceeds in phases. In each phase each player chooses one resource. A scheduler dictates the order in which the players proceed in a phase, possibly scheduling several players to proceed concurrently. The game ends when each player has collected a set of resources that fulfills his objective. The cost for each player then depends on this set as well as on the load on the resources in it – we consider both congestion and cost-sharing games. We argue that the dynamic setting is the suitable setting for many applications in practice. We study the stability of dynamic resource allocation games, where the appropriate notion of stability is that of subgame perfect equilibrium, study the inefficiency incurred due to selfish behavior, and also study problems that are particular to the dynamic setting, like constraints on the order in which resources can be chosen or the problem of finding a scheduler that achieves stability.
AU - Avni, Guy
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Kupferman, Orna
ID - 6761
JF - Theoretical Computer Science
SN - 03043975
TI - Dynamic resource allocation games
VL - 807
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the monotone variational inequality problem in a Hilbert space and describe a projection-type method with inertial terms under the following properties: (a) The method generates a strongly convergent iteration sequence; (b) The method requires, at each iteration, only one projection onto the feasible set and two evaluations of the operator; (c) The method is designed for variational inequality for which the underline operator is monotone and uniformly continuous; (d) The method includes an inertial term. The latter is also shown to speed up the convergence in our numerical results. A comparison with some related methods is given and indicates that the new method is promising.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Li, Xiao-Huan
AU - Dong, Qiao-Li
ID - 6593
JF - Numerical Algorithms
SN - 1017-1398
TI - An efficient projection-type method for monotone variational inequalities in Hilbert spaces
VL - 84
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become an important catalyst for discovery in the life sciences. In STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy, a pattern of light drives fluorophores from a signal-emitting on-state to a non-signalling off-state. Only emitters residing in a sub-diffraction volume around an intensity minimum are allowed to fluoresce, rendering them distinguishable from the nearby, but dark fluorophores. STED routinely achieves resolution in the few tens of nanometers range in biological samples and is suitable for live imaging. Here, we review the working principle of STED and provide general guidelines for successful STED imaging. The strive for ever higher resolution comes at the cost of increased light burden. We discuss techniques to reduce light exposure and mitigate its detrimental effects on the specimen. These include specialized illumination strategies as well as protecting fluorophores from photobleaching mediated by high-intensity STED light. This opens up the prospect of volumetric imaging in living cells and tissues with diffraction-unlimited resolution in all three spatial dimensions.
AU - Jahr, Wiebke
AU - Velicky, Philipp
AU - Danzl, Johann G
ID - 6808
IS - 3
JF - Methods
SN - 1046-2023
TI - Strategies to maximize performance in STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy of biological specimens
VL - 174
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents two algorithms. The first decides the existence of a pointed homotopy between given simplicial maps 𝑓,𝑔:𝑋→𝑌, and the second computes the group [𝛴𝑋,𝑌]∗ of pointed homotopy classes of maps from a suspension; in both cases, the target Y is assumed simply connected. More generally, these algorithms work relative to 𝐴⊆𝑋.
AU - Filakovský, Marek
AU - Vokřínek, Lukas
ID - 6563
JF - Foundations of Computational Mathematics
SN - 16153375
TI - Are two given maps homotopic? An algorithmic viewpoint
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a unified framework tackling two problems: class-specific 3D reconstruction from a single image, and generation of new 3D shape samples. These tasks have received considerable attention recently; however, most existing approaches rely on 3D supervision, annotation of 2D images with keypoints or poses, and/or training with multiple views of each object instance. Our framework is very general: it can be trained in similar settings to existing approaches, while also supporting weaker supervision. Importantly, it can be trained purely from 2D images, without pose annotations, and with only a single view per instance. We employ meshes as an output representation, instead of voxels used in most prior work. This allows us to reason over lighting parameters and exploit shading information during training, which previous 2D-supervised methods cannot. Thus, our method can learn to generate and reconstruct concave object classes. We evaluate our approach in various settings, showing that: (i) it learns to disentangle shape from pose and lighting; (ii) using shading in the loss improves performance compared to just silhouettes; (iii) when using a standard single white light, our model outperforms state-of-the-art 2D-supervised methods, both with and without pose supervision, thanks to exploiting shading cues; (iv) performance improves further when using multiple coloured lights, even approaching that of state-of-the-art 3D-supervised methods; (v) shapes produced by our model capture smooth surfaces and fine details better than voxel-based approaches; and (vi) our approach supports concave classes such as bathtubs and sofas, which methods based on silhouettes cannot learn.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Ferrari, Vittorio
ID - 6952
JF - International Journal of Computer Vision
SN - 0920-5691
TI - Learning single-image 3D reconstruction by generative modelling of shape, pose and shading
VL - 128
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the cerebellum, GluD2 is exclusively expressed in Purkinje cells, where it regulates synapse formation and regeneration, synaptic plasticity, and motor learning. Delayed cognitive development in humans with GluD2 gene mutations suggests extracerebellar functions of GluD2. However, extracerebellar expression of GluD2 and its relationship with that of GluD1 are poorly understood. GluD2 mRNA and protein were widely detected, with relatively high levels observed in the olfactory glomerular layer, medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, olfactory tubercle, subiculum, striatum, lateral septum, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus. These regions were also enriched for GluD1, and many individual neurons coexpressed the two GluDs. In the retrosplenial granular cortex, GluD1 and GluD2 were selectively expressed at PSD‐95‐expressing glutamatergic synapses, and their coexpression on the same synapses was shown by SDS‐digested freeze‐fracture replica labeling. Biochemically, GluD1 and GluD2 formed coimmunoprecipitable complex formation in HEK293T cells and in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. We further estimated the relative protein amount by quantitative immunoblotting using GluA2/GluD2 and GluA2/GluD1 chimeric proteins as standards for titration of GluD1 and GluD2 antibodies. Intriguingly, the relative amount of GluD2 was almost comparable to that of GluD1 in the postsynaptic density fraction prepared from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In contrast, GluD2 was overwhelmingly predominant in the cerebellum. Thus, we have determined the relative extracerebellar expression of GluD1 and GluD2 at regional, neuronal, and synaptic levels. These data provide a molecular–anatomical basis for possible competitive and cooperative interactions of GluD family members at synapses in various brain regions.
AU - Nakamoto, Chihiro
AU - Konno, Kohtarou
AU - Miyazaki, Taisuke
AU - Nakatsukasa, Ena
AU - Natsume, Rie
AU - Abe, Manabu
AU - Kawamura, Meiko
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
AU - Yamasaki, Miwako
AU - Sakimura, Kenji
AU - Watanabe, Masahiko
ID - 7148
IS - 6
JF - Journal of Comparative Neurology
SN - 0021-9967
TI - Expression mapping, quantification, and complex formation of GluD1 and GluD2 glutamate receptors in adult mouse brain
VL - 528
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Removal of the Bax gene from mice completely protects the somas of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis following optic nerve injury. This makes BAX a promising therapeutic target to prevent neurodegeneration. In this study, Bax+/− mice were used to test the hypothesis that lowering the quantity of BAX in RGCs would delay apoptosis following optic nerve injury. RGCs were damaged by performing optic nerve crush (ONC) and then immunostaining for phospho-cJUN, and quantitative PCR were used to monitor the status of the BAX activation mechanism in the months following injury. The apoptotic susceptibility of injured cells was directly tested by virally introducing GFP-BAX into Bax−/− RGCs after injury. The competency of quiescent RGCs to reactivate their BAX activation mechanism was tested by intravitreal injection of the JNK pathway agonist, anisomycin. Twenty-four weeks after ONC, Bax+/− mice had significantly less cell loss in their RGC layer than Bax+/+ mice 3 weeks after ONC. Bax+/− and Bax+/+ RGCs exhibited similar patterns of nuclear phospho-cJUN accumulation immediately after ONC, which persisted in Bax+/− RGCs for up to 7 weeks before abating. The transcriptional activation of BAX-activating genes was similar in Bax+/− and Bax+/+ RGCs following ONC. Intriguingly, cells deactivated their BAX activation mechanism between 7 and 12 weeks after crush. Introduction of GFP-BAX into Bax−/− cells at 4 weeks after ONC showed that these cells had a nearly normal capacity to activate this protein, but this capacity was lost 8 weeks after crush. Collectively, these data suggest that 8–12 weeks after crush, damaged cells no longer displayed increased susceptibility to BAX activation relative to their naïve counterparts. In this same timeframe, retinal glial activation and the signaling of the pro-apoptotic JNK pathway also abated. Quiescent RGCs did not show a timely reactivation of their JNK pathway following intravitreal injection with anisomycin. These findings demonstrate that lowering the quantity of BAX in RGCs is neuroprotective after acute injury. Damaged RGCs enter a quiescent state months after injury and are no longer responsive to an apoptotic stimulus. Quiescent RGCs will require rejuvenation to reacquire functionality.
AU - Donahue, RJ
AU - Maes, Margaret E
AU - Grosser, JA
AU - Nickells, RW
ID - 7033
IS - 2
JF - Molecular Neurobiology
SN - 0893-7648
TI - BAX-depleted retinal ganglion cells survive and become quiescent following optic nerve damage
VL - 57
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 6997
IS - 3
JF - New Phytologist
SN - 0028-646x
TI - Auxin guides roots to avoid obstacles during gravitropic growth
VL - 225
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In recent years, many genes have been associated with chromatinopathies classified as “Cornelia de Lange Syndrome‐like.” It is known that the phenotype of these patients becomes less recognizable, overlapping to features characteristic of other syndromes caused by genetic variants affecting different regulators of chromatin structure and function. Therefore, Cornelia de Lange syndrome diagnosis might be arduous due to the seldom discordance between unexpected molecular diagnosis and clinical evaluation. Here, we review the molecular features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome, supporting the hypothesis that “CdLS‐like syndromes” are part of a larger “rare disease family” sharing multiple clinical features and common disrupted molecular pathways.
AU - Avagliano, Laura
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Grazioli, Paolo
AU - Di Fede, Elisabetta
AU - Parodi, Chiara
AU - Mariani, Milena
AU - Kaiser, Frank J.
AU - Selicorni, Angelo
AU - Gervasini, Cristina
AU - Massa, Valentina
ID - 7149
IS - 1
JF - Clinical Genetics
SN - 0009-9163
TI - Chromatinopathies: A focus on Cornelia de Lange syndrome
VL - 97
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We define an action of the (double of) Cohomological Hall algebra of Kontsevich and Soibelman on the cohomology of the moduli space of spiked instantons of Nekrasov. We identify this action with the one of the affine Yangian of gl(1). Based on that we derive the vertex algebra at the corner Wr1,r2,r3 of Gaiotto and Rapčák. We conjecture that our approach works for a big class of Calabi–Yau categories, including those associated with toric Calabi–Yau 3-folds.
AU - Rapcak, Miroslav
AU - Soibelman, Yan
AU - Yang, Yaping
AU - Zhao, Gufang
ID - 7004
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cohomological Hall algebras, vertex algebras and instantons
VL - 376
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant root architecture dynamically adapts to various environmental conditions, such as salt‐containing soil. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved among others also in these developmental adaptations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, a novel branch of the ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis involving PYR/PYL/RCAR (abbreviated as PYLs) receptor‐protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex that acts in parallel to the canonical PYLs‐protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) mechanism is identified. The PYLs‐PP2A signaling modulates root gravitropism and lateral root formation through regulating phytohormone auxin transport. In optimal conditions, PYLs ABA receptor interacts with the catalytic subunits of PP2A, increasing their phosphatase activity and thus counteracting PINOID (PID) kinase‐mediated phosphorylation of PIN‐FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. By contrast, in salt and osmotic stress conditions, ABA binds to PYLs, inhibiting the PP2A activity, which leads to increased PIN phosphorylation and consequently modulated directional auxin transport leading to adapted root architecture. This work reveals an adaptive mechanism that may flexibly adjust plant root growth to withstand saline and osmotic stresses. It occurs via the cross‐talk between the stress hormone ABA and the versatile developmental regulator auxin.
AU - Li, Yang
AU - Wang, Yaping
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Li, Zhen
AU - Yuan, Zhi
AU - Glanc, Matous
AU - Domjan, David
AU - Wang, Kai
AU - Xuan, Wei
AU - Guo, Yan
AU - Gong, Zhizhong
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Zhang, Jing
ID - 7204
IS - 3
JF - Advanced Science
TI - Root growth adaptation is mediated by PYLs ABA receptor-PP2A protein phosphatase complex
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - BACKGROUND:The introduction of image-guided methods to bypass surgery has resulted in optimized preoperative identification of the recipients and excellent patency rates. However, the recently presented methods have also been resource-consuming. In the present study, we have reported a cost-efficient planning workflow for extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) revascularization combined with transdural indocyanine green videoangiography (tICG-VA). METHODS:We performed a retrospective review at a single tertiary referral center from 2011 to 2018. A novel software-derived workflow was applied for 25 of 92 bypass procedures during the study period. The precision and accuracy were assessed using tICG-VA identification of the cortical recipients and a comparison of the virtual and actual data. The data from a control group of 25 traditionally planned procedures were also matched. RESULTS:The intraoperative transfer time of the calculated coordinates averaged 0.8 minute (range, 0.4-1.9 minutes). The definitive recipients matched the targeted branches in 80%, and a neighboring branch was used in 16%. Our workflow led to a significant craniotomy size reduction in the study group compared with that in the control group (P = 0.005). tICG-VA was successfully applied in 19 cases. An average of 2 potential recipient arteries were identified transdurally, resulting in tailored durotomy and 3 craniotomy adjustments. Follow-up patency results were available for 49 bypass surgeries, comprising 54 grafts. The overall patency rate was 91% at a median follow-up period of 26 months. No significant difference was found in the patency rate between the study and control groups (P = 0.317). CONCLUSIONS:Our clinical results have validated the presented planning and surgical workflow and support the routine implementation of tICG-VA for recipient identification before durotomy.
AU - Dodier, Philippe
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Mistelbauer, Gabriel
AU - Wang, Wei Te
AU - Ferraz-Leite, Heber
AU - Gruber, Andreas
AU - Marik, Wolfgang
AU - Winter, Fabian
AU - Fischer, Gerrit
AU - Frischer, Josa M.
AU - Bavinzski, Gerhard
ID - 7220
IS - 2
JF - World Neurosurgery
SN - 1878-8750
TI - Novel software-derived workflow in extracranial–intracranial bypass surgery validated by transdural indocyanine green videoangiography
VL - 134
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The phytohormone auxin acts as an amazingly versatile coordinator of plant growth and development. With its morphogen-like properties, auxin controls sites and timing of differentiation and/or growth responses both, in quantitative and qualitative terms. Specificity in the auxin response depends largely on distinct modes of signal transmission, by which individual cells perceive and convert auxin signals into a remarkable diversity of responses. The best understood, or so-called canonical mechanism of auxin perception ultimately results in variable adjustments of the cellular transcriptome, via a short, nuclear signal transduction pathway. Additional findings that accumulated over decades implied that an additional, presumably, cell surface-based auxin perception mechanism mediates very rapid cellular responses and decisively contributes to the cell's overall hormonal response. Recent investigations into both, nuclear and cell surface auxin signalling challenged this assumed partition of roles for different auxin signalling pathways and revealed an unexpected complexity in transcriptional and non-transcriptional cellular responses mediated by auxin.
AU - Gallei, Michelle C
AU - Luschnig, Christian
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 7142
IS - 2
JF - Current Opinion in Plant Biology
SN - 1369-5266
TI - Auxin signalling in growth: Schrödinger's cat out of the bag
VL - 53
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the living cell, we encounter a large variety of motile processes such as organelle transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. These processes are driven by motor proteins that generate force by transducing chemical free energy into mechanical work. In many cases, the molecular motors work in teams to collectively generate larger forces. Recent optical trapping experiments on small teams of cytoskeletal motors indicated that the collectively generated force increases with the size of the motor team but that this increase depends on the motor type and on whether the motors are studied in vitro or in vivo. Here, we use the theory of stochastic processes to describe the motion of N motors in a stationary optical trap and to compute the N-dependence of the collectively generated forces. We consider six distinct motor types, two kinesins, two dyneins, and two myosins. We show that the force increases always linearly with N but with a prefactor that depends on the performance of the single motor. Surprisingly, this prefactor increases for weaker motors with a lower stall force. This counter-intuitive behavior reflects the increased probability with which stronger motors detach from the filament during strain generation. Our theoretical results are in quantitative agreement with experimental data on small teams of kinesin-1 motors.
AU - Ucar, Mehmet C
AU - Lipowsky, Reinhard
ID - 7166
IS - 1
JF - Nano Letters
SN - 1530-6984
TI - Collective force generation by molecular motors is determined by strain-induced unbinding
VL - 20
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Data obtained from the fine-grained simulations used in Figures 2-5, data obtained from the coarse-grained numerical calculations used in Figure 6, and a sample script for the fine-grained simulation as a Jupyter notebook (ZIP)
AU - Ucar, Mehmet C
AU - Lipowsky, Reinhard
ID - 9885
TI - MURL_Dataz
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The combined resection of skull-infiltrating tumours and immediate cranioplastic reconstruction predominantly relies on freehand-moulded solutions. Techniques that enable this procedure to be performed easily in routine clinical practice would be useful. A cadaveric study was developed in which a new software tool was used to perform single-stage reconstructions with prefabricated implants after the resection of skull-infiltrating pathologies. A novel 3D visualization and interaction framework was developed to create 10 virtual craniotomies in five cadaveric specimens. Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implants were manufactured according to the bone defects. The image-guided craniotomy was reconstructed with PEEK and compared to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Navigational accuracy and surgical precision were assessed. The PEEK workflow resulted in up to 10-fold shorter reconstruction times than the standard technique. Surgical precision was reflected by the mean 1.1 ± 0.29 mm distance between the virtual and real craniotomy, with submillimetre precision in 50%. Assessment of the global offset between virtual and actual craniotomy revealed an average shift of 4.5 ± 3.6 mm. The results validated the ‘elective single-stage cranioplasty’ technique as a state-of-the-art virtual planning method and surgical workflow. This patient-tailored workflow could significantly reduce surgical times compared to the traditional, intraoperative acrylic moulding method and may be an option for the reconstruction of bone defects in the craniofacial region.
AU - Dodier, Philippe
AU - Winter, Fabian
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Mistelbauer, Gabriel
AU - Frischer, Josa M.
AU - Wang, Wei Te
AU - Mallouhi, Ammar
AU - Marik, Wolfgang
AU - Wolfsberger, Stefan
AU - Reissig, Lukas
AU - Hammadi, Firas
AU - Matula, Christian
AU - Baumann, Arnulf
AU - Bavinzski, Gerhard
ID - 7218
IS - 8
JF - International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
SN - 0901-5027
TI - Single-stage bone resection and cranioplastic reconstruction: Comparison of a novel software-derived PEEK workflow with the standard reconstructive method
VL - 49
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Root system architecture (RSA), governed by the phytohormone auxin, endows plants with an adaptive advantage in particular environments. Using geographically representative arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions as a resource for GWA mapping, Waidmann et al. and Ogura et al. recently identified two novel components involved in modulating auxin-mediated RSA and conferring plant fitness in particular habitats.
AU - Xiao, Guanghui
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
ID - 7219
IS - 2
JF - Trends in Plant Science
SN - 13601385
TI - Adaptive growth: Shaping auxin-mediated root system architecture
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - T lymphocytes utilize amoeboid migration to navigate effectively within complex microenvironments. The precise rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton required for cellular forward propulsion is mediated by actin regulators, including the actin‐related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, a macromolecular machine that nucleates branched actin filaments at the leading edge. The consequences of modulating Arp2/3 activity on the biophysical properties of the actomyosin cortex and downstream T cell function are incompletely understood. We report that even a moderate decrease of Arp3 levels in T cells profoundly affects actin cortex integrity. Reduction in total F‐actin content leads to reduced cortical tension and disrupted lamellipodia formation. Instead, in Arp3‐knockdown cells, the motility mode is dominated by blebbing migration characterized by transient, balloon‐like protrusions at the leading edge. Although this migration mode seems to be compatible with interstitial migration in three‐dimensional environments, diminished locomotion kinetics and impaired cytotoxicity interfere with optimal T cell function. These findings define the importance of finely tuned, Arp2/3‐dependent mechanophysical membrane integrity in cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte activities.
AU - Obeidy, Peyman
AU - Ju, Lining A.
AU - Oehlers, Stefan H.
AU - Zulkhernain, Nursafwana S.
AU - Lee, Quintin
AU - Galeano Niño, Jorge L.
AU - Kwan, Rain Y.Q.
AU - Tikoo, Shweta
AU - Cavanagh, Lois L.
AU - Mrass, Paulus
AU - Cook, Adam J.L.
AU - Jackson, Shaun P.
AU - Biro, Maté
AU - Roediger, Ben
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Weninger, Wolfgang
ID - 7234
IS - 2
JF - Immunology and Cell Biology
SN - 08189641
TI - Partial loss of actin nucleator actin-related protein 2/3 activity triggers blebbing in primary T lymphocytes
VL - 98
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 is encoded by the imprinted Cdkn1c locus, exhibits maternal expression, and is essential for cerebral cortex development. How Cdkn1c regulates corticogenesis is however not clear. To this end we employ Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) technology to genetically dissect Cdkn1c gene function in corticogenesis at single cell resolution. We find that the previously described growth-inhibitory Cdkn1c function is a non-cell-autonomous one, acting on the whole organism. In contrast we reveal a growth-promoting cell-autonomous Cdkn1c function which at the mechanistic level mediates radial glial progenitor cell and nascent projection neuron survival. Strikingly, the growth-promoting function of Cdkn1c is highly dosage sensitive but not subject to genomic imprinting. Collectively, our results suggest that the Cdkn1c locus regulates cortical development through distinct cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. More generally, our study highlights the importance to probe the relative contributions of cell intrinsic gene function and tissue-wide mechanisms to the overall phenotype.
AU - Laukoter, Susanne
AU - Beattie, Robert J
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Nakayama, Keiichi I.
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 7253
JF - Nature Communications
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Imprinted Cdkn1c genomic locus cell-autonomously promotes cell survival in cerebral cortex development
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cytoskeletal filaments such as microtubules (MTs) and filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamically support cell structure and functions. In central presynaptic terminals, F-actin is expressed along the release edge and reportedly plays diverse functional roles, but whether axonal MTs extend deep into terminals and play any physiological role remains controversial. At the calyx of Held in rats of either sex, confocal and high-resolution microscopy revealed that MTs enter deep into presynaptic terminal swellings and partially colocalize with a subset of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated that depolymerization of MTs specifically prolonged the slow-recovery time component of EPSCs from short-term depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation, whereas depolymerization of F-actin specifically prolonged the fast-recovery component. In simultaneous presynaptic and postsynaptic action potential recordings, depolymerization of MTs or F-actin significantly impaired the fidelity of high-frequency neurotransmission. We conclude that MTs and F-actin differentially contribute to slow and fast SV replenishment, thereby maintaining high-frequency neurotransmission.
AU - Piriya Ananda Babu, Lashmi
AU - Wang, Han Ying
AU - Eguchi, Kohgaku
AU - Guillaud, Laurent
AU - Takahashi, Tomoyuki
ID - 7339
IS - 1
JF - Journal of neuroscience
TI - Microtubule and actin differentially regulate synaptic vesicle cycling to maintain high-frequency neurotransmission
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The ability to sense environmental temperature and to coordinate growth and development accordingly, is critical to the reproductive success of plants. Flowering time is regulated at the level of gene expression by a complex network of factors that integrate environmental and developmental cues. One of the main players, involved in modulating flowering time in response to changes in ambient temperature is FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM). FLM transcripts can undergo extensive alternative splicing producing multiple variants, of which FLM-β and FLM-δ are the most representative. While FLM-β codes for the flowering repressor FLM protein, translation of FLM-δ has the opposite effect on flowering. Here we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase G2 (CDKG2), together with its cognate cyclin, CYCLYN L1 (CYCL1) affects the alternative splicing of FLM, balancing the levels of FLM-β and FLM-δ across the ambient temperature range. In the absence of the CDKG2/CYCL1 complex, FLM-β expression is reduced while FLM-δ is increased in a temperature dependent manner and these changes are associated with an early flowering phenotype in the cdkg2 mutant lines. In addition, we found that transcript variants retaining the full FLM intron 1 are sequestered in the cell nucleus. Strikingly, FLM intron 1 splicing is also regulated by CDKG2/CYCL1. Our results provide evidence that temperature and CDKs regulate the alternative splicing of FLM, contributing to flowering time definition.
AU - Nibau, Candida
AU - Gallemi, Marçal
AU - Dadarou, Despoina
AU - Doonan, John H.
AU - Cavallari, Nicola
ID - 7350
JF - Frontiers in Plant Science
SN - 1664-462X
TI - Thermo-sensitive alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M is modulated by cyclin-dependent kinase G2
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neuronal responses to complex stimuli and tasks can encompass a wide range of time scales. Understanding these responses requires measures that characterize how the information on these response patterns are represented across multiple temporal resolutions. In this paper we propose a metric – which we call multiscale relevance (MSR) – to capture the dynamical variability of the activity of single neurons across different time scales. The MSR is a non-parametric, fully featureless indicator in that it uses only the time stamps of the firing activity without resorting to any a priori covariate or invoking any specific structure in the tuning curve for neural activity. When applied to neural data from the mEC and from the ADn and PoS regions of freely-behaving rodents, we found that neurons having low MSR tend to have low mutual information and low firing sparsity across the correlates that are believed to be encoded by the region of the brain where the recordings were made. In addition, neurons with high MSR contain significant information on spatial navigation and allow to decode spatial position or head direction as efficiently as those neurons whose firing activity has high mutual information with the covariate to be decoded and significantly better than the set of neurons with high local variations in their interspike intervals. Given these results, we propose that the MSR can be used as a measure to rank and select neurons for their information content without the need to appeal to any a priori covariate.
AU - Cubero, Ryan J
AU - Marsili, Matteo
AU - Roudi, Yasser
ID - 7369
JF - Journal of Computational Neuroscience
KW - Time series analysis
KW - Multiple time scale analysis
KW - Spike train data
KW - Information theory
KW - Bayesian decoding
SN - 0929-5313
TI - Multiscale relevance and informative encoding in neuronal spike trains
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Most bacteria accomplish cell division with the help of a dynamic protein complex called the divisome, which spans the cell envelope in the plane of division. Assembly and activation of this machinery are coordinated by the tubulin-related GTPase FtsZ, which was found to form treadmilling filaments on supported bilayers in vitro1, as well as in live cells, in which filaments circle around the cell division site2,3. Treadmilling of FtsZ is thought to actively move proteins around the division septum, thereby distributing peptidoglycan synthesis and coordinating the inward growth of the septum to form the new poles of the daughter cells4. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this function are largely unknown. Here, to study how FtsZ polymerization dynamics are coupled to downstream proteins, we reconstituted part of the bacterial cell division machinery using its purified components FtsZ, FtsA and truncated transmembrane proteins essential for cell division. We found that the membrane-bound cytosolic peptides of FtsN and FtsQ co-migrated with treadmilling FtsZ–FtsA filaments, but despite their directed collective behaviour, individual peptides showed random motion and transient confinement. Our work suggests that divisome proteins follow treadmilling FtsZ filaments by a diffusion-and-capture mechanism, which can give rise to a moving zone of signalling activity at the division site.
AU - Baranova, Natalia S.
AU - Radler, Philipp
AU - Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.
AU - Alfonso, Carlos
AU - Lopez Pelegrin, Maria D
AU - Rivas, Germán
AU - Vollmer, Waldemar
AU - Loose, Martin
ID - 7387
JF - Nature Microbiology
SN - 2058-5276
TI - Diffusion and capture permits dynamic coupling between treadmilling FtsZ filaments and cell division proteins
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present nsCouette, a highly scalable software tool to solve the Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow between differentially heated and independently rotating, concentric cylinders. It is based on a pseudospectral spatial discretization and dynamic time-stepping. It is implemented in modern Fortran with a hybrid MPI-OpenMP parallelization scheme and thus designed to compute turbulent flows at high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. An additional GPU implementation (C-CUDA) for intermediate problem sizes and a version for pipe flow (nsPipe) are also provided.
AU - Lopez Alonso, Jose M
AU - Feldmann, Daniel
AU - Rampp, Markus
AU - Vela-Martín, Alberto
AU - Shi, Liang
AU - Avila, Marc
ID - 7364
JF - SoftwareX
TI - nsCouette – A high-performance code for direct numerical simulations of turbulent Taylor–Couette flow
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In many real-world systems, information can be transmitted in two qualitatively different ways: by copying or by transformation. Copying occurs when messages are transmitted without modification, e.g. when an offspring receives an unaltered copy of a gene from its parent. Transformation occurs when messages are modified systematically during transmission, e.g. when mutational biases occur during genetic replication. Standard information-theoretic measures do not distinguish these two modes of information transfer, although they may reflect different mechanisms and have different functional consequences. Starting from a few simple axioms, we derive a decomposition of mutual information into the information transmitted by copying versus the information transmitted by transformation. We begin with a decomposition that applies when the source and destination of the channel have the same set of messages and a notion of message identity exists. We then generalize our decomposition to other kinds of channels, which can involve different source and destination sets and broader notions of similarity. In addition, we show that copy information can be interpreted as the minimal work needed by a physical copying process, which is relevant for understanding the physics of replication. We use the proposed decomposition to explore a model of amino acid substitution rates. Our results apply to any system in which the fidelity of copying, rather than simple predictability, is of critical relevance.
AU - Kolchinsky, Artemy
AU - Corominas-Murtra, Bernat
ID - 7431
IS - 162
JF - Journal of the Royal Society Interface
TI - Decomposing information into copying versus transformation
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the superconducting regime of FeTe(1−x)Sex, there exist two types of vortices which are distinguished by the presence or absence of zero-energy states in their core. To understand their origin, we examine the interplay of Zeeman coupling and superconducting pairings in three-dimensional metals with band inversion. Weak Zeeman fields are found to suppress intraorbital spin-singlet pairing, known to localize the states at the ends of the vortices on the surface. On the other hand, an orbital-triplet pairing is shown to be stable against Zeeman interactions, but leads to delocalized zero-energy Majorana modes which extend through the vortex. In contrast, the finite-energy vortex modes remain localized at the vortex ends even when the pairing is of orbital-triplet form. Phenomenologically, this manifests as an observed disappearance of zero-bias peaks within the cores of topological vortices upon an increase of the applied magnetic field. The presence of magnetic impurities in FeTe(1−x)Sex, which are attracted to the vortices, would lead to such Zeeman-induced delocalization of Majorana modes in a fraction of vortices that capture a large enough number of magnetic impurities. Our results provide an explanation for the dichotomy between topological and nontopological vortices recently observed in FeTe(1−x)Sex.
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Lopes, P. L.S.
AU - Hosur, Pavan
AU - Gilbert, Matthew J.
AU - Ghaemi, Pouyan
ID - 7428
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 24699950
TI - Effect of Zeeman coupling on the Majorana vortex modes in iron-based topological superconductors
VL - 101
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recently Kloeckner described the structure of the isometry group of the quadratic Wasserstein space W_2(R^n). It turned out that the case of the real line is exceptional in the sense that there exists an exotic isometry flow. Following this line of investigation, we compute Isom(W_p(R)), the isometry group of the Wasserstein space
W_p(R) for all p \in [1,\infty) \setminus {2}. We show that W_2(R) is also exceptional regarding the
parameter p: W_p(R) is isometrically rigid if and only if p is not equal to 2. Regarding the underlying
space, we prove that the exceptionality of p = 2 disappears if we replace R by the compact
interval [0,1]. Surprisingly, in that case, W_p([0,1]) is isometrically rigid if and only if
p is not equal to 1. Moreover, W_1([0,1]) admits isometries that split mass, and Isom(W_1([0,1]))
cannot be embedded into Isom(W_1(R)).
AU - Geher, Gyorgy Pal
AU - Titkos, Tamas
AU - Virosztek, Daniel
ID - 7389
IS - 8
JF - Transactions of the American Mathematical Society
KW - Wasserstein space
KW - isometric embeddings
KW - isometric rigidity
KW - exotic isometry flow
SN - 00029947
TI - Isometric study of Wasserstein spaces - the real line
VL - 373
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nanomaterials produced from the bottom-up assembly of nanocrystals may incorporate ∼1020–1021 cm–3 not fully coordinated surface atoms, i.e., ∼1020–1021 cm–3 potential donor or acceptor states that can strongly affect transport properties. Therefore, to exploit the full potential of nanocrystal building blocks to produce functional nanomaterials and thin films, a proper control of their surface chemistry is required. Here, we analyze how the ligand stripping procedure influences the charge and heat transport properties of sintered PbSe nanomaterials produced from the bottom-up assembly of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals. First, we show that the removal of the native organic ligands by thermal decomposition in an inert atmosphere leaves relatively large amounts of carbon at the crystal interfaces. This carbon blocks crystal growth during consolidation and at the same time hampers charge and heat transport through the final nanomaterial. Second, we demonstrate that, by stripping ligands from the nanocrystal surface before consolidation, nanomaterials with larger crystal domains, lower porosity, and higher charge carrier concentrations are obtained, thus resulting in nanomaterials with higher electrical and thermal conductivities. In addition, the ligand displacement leaves the nanocrystal surface unprotected, facilitating oxidation and chalcogen evaporation. The influence of the ligand displacement on the nanomaterial charge transport properties is rationalized here using a two-band model based on the standard Boltzmann transport equation with the relaxation time approximation. Finally, we present an application of the produced functional nanomaterials by modeling, fabricating, and testing a simple PbSe-based thermoelectric device with a ring geometry.
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ortega, Silvia
AU - Illera, Sergio
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Zhang, Yu
AU - Li, Mengyao
AU - López, Antonio M.
AU - Noriega, Germán
AU - Durá, Oscar Juan
AU - López De La Torre, M. A.
AU - Prades, Joan Daniel
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 7467
IS - 3
JF - ACS Applied Energy Materials
TI - Influence of the ligand stripping on the transport properties of nanoparticle-based PbSe nanomaterials
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The flexible development of plants is characterized by a high capacity for post-embryonic organ formation and tissue regeneration, processes, which require tightly regulated intercellular communication and coordinated tissue (re-)polarization. The phytohormone auxin, the main driver for these processes, is able to establish polarized auxin transport channels, which are characterized by the expression and polar, subcellular localization of the PIN1 auxin transport proteins. These channels are demarcating the position of future vascular strands necessary for organ formation and tissue regeneration. Major progress has been made in the last years to understand how PINs can change their polarity in different contexts and thus guide auxin flow through the plant. However, it still remains elusive how auxin mediates the establishment of auxin conducting channels and the formation of vascular tissue and which cellular processes are involved. By the means of sophisticated regeneration experiments combined with local auxin applications in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems we show that (i) PIN subcellular dynamics, (ii) PIN internalization by clathrin-mediated trafficking and (iii) an intact actin cytoskeleton required for post-endocytic trafficking are indispensable for auxin channel formation, de novo vascular formation and vascular regeneration after wounding. These observations provide novel insights into cellular mechanism of coordinated tissue polarization during auxin canalization.
AU - Mazur, Ewa
AU - Gallei, Michelle C
AU - Adamowski, Maciek
AU - Han, Huibin
AU - Robert, Hélène S.
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 7465
IS - 4
JF - Plant Science
SN - 01689452
TI - Clathrin-mediated trafficking and PIN trafficking are required for auxin canalization and vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis
VL - 293
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Unpaired ligands are secreted signals that act via a GP130-like receptor, domeless, to activate JAK/STAT signalling in Drosophila. Like many mammalian cytokines, unpaireds can be activated by infection and other stresses and can promote insulin resistance in target tissues. However, the importance of this effect in non-inflammatory physiology is unknown. Here, we identify a requirement for unpaired-JAK signalling as a metabolic regulator in healthy adult Drosophila muscle. Adult muscles show basal JAK-STAT signalling activity in the absence of any immune challenge. Plasmatocytes (Drosophila macrophages) are an important source of this tonic signal. Loss of the dome receptor on adult muscles significantly reduces lifespan and causes local and systemic metabolic pathology. These pathologies result from hyperactivation of AKT and consequent deregulation of metabolism. Thus, we identify a cytokine signal that must be received in muscle to control AKT activity and metabolic homeostasis.
AU - Kierdorf, Katrin
AU - Hersperger, Fabian
AU - Sharrock, Jessica
AU - Vincent, Crystal M.
AU - Ustaoglu, Pinar
AU - Dou, Jiawen
AU - György, Attila
AU - Groß, Olaf
AU - Siekhaus, Daria E
AU - Dionne, Marc S.
ID - 7466
JF - eLife
TI - Muscle function and homeostasis require cytokine inhibition of AKT activity in Drosophila
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Temporally organized reactivation of experiences during awake immobility periods is thought to underlie cognitive processes like planning and evaluation. While replay of trajectories is well established for the hippocampus, it is unclear whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) can reactivate sequential behavioral experiences in the awake state to support task execution. We simultaneously recorded from hippocampal and mPFC principal neurons in rats performing a mPFC-dependent rule-switching task on a plus maze. We found that mPFC neuronal activity encoded relative positions between the start and goal. During awake immobility periods, the mPFC replayed temporally organized sequences of these generalized positions, resembling entire spatial trajectories. The occurrence of mPFC trajectory replay positively correlated with rule-switching performance. However, hippocampal and mPFC trajectory replay occurred independently, indicating different functions. These results demonstrate that the mPFC can replay ordered activity patterns representing generalized locations and suggest that mPFC replay might have a role in flexible behavior.
AU - Käfer, Karola
AU - Nardin, Michele
AU - Blahna, Karel
AU - Csicsvari, Jozsef L
ID - 7472
IS - 1
JF - Neuron
SN - 0896-6273
TI - Replay of behavioral sequences in the medial prefrontal cortex during rule switching
VL - 106
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We give a Wong-Zakai type characterisation of the solutions of quasilinear heat equations driven by space-time white noise in 1 + 1 dimensions. In order to show that the renormalisation counterterms are local in the solution, a careful arrangement of a few hundred terms is required. The main tool in this computation is a general ‘integration by parts’ formula that provides a number of linear identities for the renormalisation constants.
AU - Gerencser, Mate
ID - 7388
IS - 3
JF - Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré C, Analyse non linéaire
SN - 0294-1449
TI - Nondivergence form quasilinear heat equations driven by space-time white noise
VL - 37
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Glutaminase (GA) catalyzes the first step in mitochondrial glutaminolysis playing a key role in cancer metabolic reprogramming. Humans express two types of GA isoforms: GLS and GLS2. GLS isozymes have been consistently related to cell proliferation, but the role of GLS2 in cancer remains poorly understood. GLS2 is repressed in many tumor cells and a better understanding of its function in tumorigenesis may further the development of new therapeutic approaches. We analyzed GLS2 expression in HCC, GBM and neuroblastoma cells, as well as in monkey COS-7 cells. We studied GLS2 expression after induction of differentiation with phorbol ester (PMA) and transduction with the full-length cDNA of GLS2. In parallel, we investigated cell cycle progression and levels of p53, p21 and c-Myc proteins. Using the baculovirus system, human GLS2 protein was overexpressed, purified and analyzed for posttranslational modifications employing a proteomics LC-MS/MS platform. We have demonstrated a dual targeting of GLS2 in human cancer cells. Immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation gave consistent results demonstrating nuclear and mitochondrial locations, with the latter being predominant. Nuclear targeting was confirmed in cancer cells overexpressing c-Myc- and GFP-tagged GLS2 proteins. We assessed the subnuclear location finding a widespread distribution of GLS2 in the nucleoplasm without clear overlapping with specific nuclear substructures. GLS2 expression and nuclear accrual notably increased by treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PMA and it correlated with cell cycle arrest at G2/M, upregulation of tumor suppressor p53 and p21 protein. A similar response was obtained by overexpression of GLS2 in T98G glioma cells, including downregulation of oncogene c-Myc. Furthermore, human GLS2 was identified as being hypusinated by MS analysis, a posttranslational modification which may be relevant for its nuclear targeting and/or function. Our studies provide evidence for a tumor suppressor role of GLS2 in certain types of cancer. The data imply that GLS2 can be regarded as a highly mobile and multilocalizing protein translocated to both mitochondria and nuclei. Upregulation of GLS2 in cancer cells induced an antiproliferative response with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase.
AU - López De La Oliva, Amada R.
AU - Campos-Sandoval, José A.
AU - Gómez-García, María C.
AU - Cardona, Carolina
AU - Martín-Rufián, Mercedes
AU - Sialana, Fernando J.
AU - Castilla, Laura
AU - Bae, Narkhyun
AU - Lobo, Carolina
AU - Peñalver, Ana
AU - García-Frutos, Marina
AU - Carro, David
AU - Enrique, Victoria
AU - Paz, José C.
AU - Mirmira, Raghavendra G.
AU - Gutiérrez, Antonia
AU - Alonso, Francisco J.
AU - Segura, Juan A.
AU - Matés, José M.
AU - Lubec, Gert
AU - Márquez, Javier
ID - 7487
IS - 1
JF - Scientific reports
TI - Nuclear translocation of glutaminase GLS2 in human cancer cells associates with proliferation arrest and differentiation
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Retrovirus assembly is driven by the multidomain structural protein Gag. Interactions between the capsid domains (CA) of Gag result in Gag multimerization, leading to an immature virus particle that is formed by a protein lattice based on dimeric, trimeric, and hexameric protein contacts. Among retroviruses the inter- and intra-hexamer contacts differ, especially in the N-terminal sub-domain of CA (CANTD). For HIV-1 the cellular molecule inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) interacts with and stabilizes the immature hexamer, and is required for production of infectious virus particles. We have used in vitro assembly, cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and mutational analyses to study the HIV-related lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). In particular, we sought to understand the structural conservation of the immature lentivirus lattice and the role of IP6 in EIAV assembly. Similar to HIV-1, IP6 strongly promoted in vitro assembly of EIAV Gag proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs), which took three morphologically highly distinct forms: narrow tubes, wide tubes, and spheres. Structural characterization of these VLPs to sub-4Å resolution unexpectedly showed that all three morphologies are based on an immature lattice with preserved key structural components, highlighting the structural versatility of CA to form immature assemblies. A direct comparison between EIAV and HIV revealed that both lentiviruses maintain similar immature interfaces, which are established by both conserved and non-conserved residues. In both EIAV and HIV-1, IP6 regulates immature assembly via conserved lysine residues within the CACTD and SP. Lastly, we demonstrate that IP6 stimulates in vitro assembly of immature particles of several other retroviruses in the lentivirus genus, suggesting a conserved role for IP6 in lentiviral assembly.
AU - Dick, Robert A.
AU - Xu, Chaoyi
AU - Morado, Dustin R.
AU - Kravchuk, Vladyslav
AU - Ricana, Clifton L.
AU - Lyddon, Terri D.
AU - Broad, Arianna M.
AU - Feathers, J. Ryan
AU - Johnson, Marc C.
AU - Vogt, Volker M.
AU - Perilla, Juan R.
AU - Briggs, John A. G.
AU - Schur, Florian KM
ID - 7464
IS - 1
JF - PLOS Pathogens
SN - 1553-7374
TI - Structures of immature EIAV Gag lattices reveal a conserved role for IP6 in lentivirus assembly
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In plants, clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) represents the major route for cargo internalisation from the cell surface. It has been assumed to operate in an evolutionary conserved manner as in yeast and animals. Here we report characterisation of ultrastructure, dynamics and mechanisms of plant CME as allowed by our advancement in electron microscopy and quantitative live imaging techniques. Arabidopsis CME appears to follow the constant curvature model and the bona fide CME population generates vesicles of a predominantly hexagonal-basket type; larger and with faster kinetics than in other models. Contrary to the existing paradigm, actin is dispensable for CME events at the plasma membrane but plays a unique role in collecting endocytic vesicles, sorting of internalised cargos and directional endosome movement that itself actively promote CME events. Internalized vesicles display a strongly delayed and sequential uncoating. These unique features highlight the independent evolution of the plant CME mechanism during the autonomous rise of multicellularity in eukaryotes.
AU - Narasimhan, Madhumitha
AU - Johnson, Alexander J
AU - Prizak, Roshan
AU - Kaufmann, Walter
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Casillas Perez, Barbara E
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 7490
JF - eLife
TI - Evolutionarily unique mechanistic framework of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plants
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Characteristic or classic phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is associated with a recognisable facial pattern. However, the heterogeneity in causal genes and the presence of overlapping syndromes have made it increasingly difficult to diagnose only by clinical features. DeepGestalt technology, and its app Face2Gene, is having a growing impact on the diagnosis and management of genetic diseases by analysing the features of affected individuals. Here, we performed a phenotypic study on a cohort of 49 individuals harbouring causative variants in known CdLS genes in order to evaluate Face2Gene utility and sensitivity in the clinical diagnosis of CdLS. Based on the profile images of patients, a diagnosis of CdLS was within the top five predicted syndromes for 97.9% of our cases and even listed as first prediction for 83.7%. The age of patients did not seem to affect the prediction accuracy, whereas our results indicate a correlation between the clinical score and affected genes. Furthermore, each gene presents a different pattern recognition that may be used to develop new neural networks with the goal of separating different genetic subtypes in CdLS. Overall, we conclude that computer-assisted image analysis based on deep learning could support the clinical diagnosis of CdLS.
AU - Latorre-Pellicer, Ana
AU - Ascaso, Ángela
AU - Trujillano, Laura
AU - Gil-Salvador, Marta
AU - Arnedo, Maria
AU - Lucia-Campos, Cristina
AU - Antoñanzas-Pérez, Rebeca
AU - Marcos-Alcalde, Iñigo
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Bueno-Lozano, Gloria
AU - Musio, Antonio
AU - Puisac, Beatriz
AU - Kaiser, Frank J.
AU - Ramos, Feliciano J.
AU - Gómez-Puertas, Paulino
AU - Pié, Juan
ID - 7488
IS - 3
JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences
SN - 16616596
TI - Evaluating Face2Gene as a tool to identify Cornelia de Lange syndrome by facial phenotypes
VL - 21
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Neural networks have demonstrated unmatched performance in a range of classification tasks. Despite numerous efforts of the research community, novelty detection remains one of the significant limitations of neural networks. The ability to identify previously unseen inputs as novel is crucial for our understanding of the decisions made by neural networks. At runtime, inputs not falling into any of the categories learned during training cannot be classified correctly by the neural network. Existing approaches treat the neural network as a black box and try to detect novel inputs based on the confidence of the output predictions. However, neural networks are not trained to reduce their confidence for novel inputs, which limits the effectiveness of these approaches. We propose a framework to monitor a neural network by observing the hidden layers. We employ a common abstraction from program analysis - boxes - to identify novel behaviors in the monitored layers, i.e., inputs that cause behaviors outside the box. For each neuron, the boxes range over the values seen in training. The framework is efficient and flexible to achieve a desired trade-off between raising false warnings and detecting novel inputs. We illustrate the performance and the robustness to variability in the unknown classes on popular image-classification benchmarks.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Lukina, Anna
AU - Schilling, Christian
ID - 7505
T2 - 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence
TI - Outside the box: Abstraction-based monitoring of neural networks
VL - 325
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we introduce a novel method for deriving higher order corrections to the mean-field description of the dynamics of interacting bosons. More precisely, we consider the dynamics of N d-dimensional bosons for large N. The bosons initially form a Bose–Einstein condensate and interact with each other via a pair potential of the form (N−1)−1Ndβv(Nβ·)forβ∈[0,14d). We derive a sequence of N-body functions which approximate the true many-body dynamics in L2(RdN)-norm to arbitrary precision in powers of N−1. The approximating functions are constructed as Duhamel expansions of finite order in terms of the first quantised analogue of a Bogoliubov time evolution.
AU - Bossmann, Lea
AU - Pavlović, Nataša
AU - Pickl, Peter
AU - Soffer, Avy
ID - 7508
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 0022-4715
TI - Higher order corrections to the mean-field description of the dynamics of interacting bosons
VL - 178
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cryo electron tomography with subsequent subtomogram averaging is a powerful technique to structurally analyze macromolecular complexes in their native context. Although close to atomic resolution in principle can be obtained, it is not clear how individual experimental parameters contribute to the attainable resolution. Here, we have used immature HIV-1 lattice as a benchmarking sample to optimize the attainable resolution for subtomogram averaging. We systematically tested various experimental parameters such as the order of projections, different angular increments and the use of the Volta phase plate. We find that although any of the prominently used acquisition schemes is sufficient to obtain subnanometer resolution, dose-symmetric acquisition provides considerably better outcome. We discuss our findings in order to provide guidance for data acquisition. Our data is publicly available and might be used to further develop processing routines.
AU - Turoňová, Beata
AU - Hagen, Wim J.H.
AU - Obr, Martin
AU - Mosalaganti, Shyamal
AU - Beugelink, J. Wouter
AU - Zimmerli, Christian E.
AU - Kräusslich, Hans Georg
AU - Beck, Martin
ID - 7511
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Benchmarking tomographic acquisition schemes for high-resolution structural biology
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Endophytic fungi can be beneficial to plant growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying colonization of Acremonium spp. remain unclear. In this study, a novel endophytic Acremonium strain was isolated from the buds of Panax notoginseng and named Acremonium sp. D212. The Acremonium sp. D212 could colonize the roots of P. notoginseng, enhance the resistance of P. notoginseng to root rot disease, and promote root growth and saponin biosynthesis in P. notoginseng. Acremonium sp. D212 could secrete indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and inoculation with the fungus increased the endogenous levels of IAA and JA in P. notoginseng. Colonization of the Acremonium sp. D212 in the roots of the rice line Nipponbare was dependent on the concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (2 to 15 μM) and 1‐naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) (10 to 20 μM). Moreover, the roots of the JA signalling‐defective coi1‐18 mutant were colonized by Acremonium sp. D212 to a lesser degree than those of the wild‐type Nipponbare and miR393b‐overexpressing lines, and the colonization was rescued by MeJA but not by NAA. It suggests that the cross‐talk between JA signalling and the auxin biosynthetic pathway plays a crucial role in the colonization of Acremonium sp. D212 in host plants.
AU - Han, L
AU - Zhou, X
AU - Zhao, Y
AU - Zhu, S
AU - Wu, L
AU - He, Y
AU - Ping, X
AU - Lu, X
AU - Huang, W
AU - Qian, J
AU - Zhang, L
AU - Jiang, X
AU - Zhu, D
AU - Luo, C
AU - Li, S
AU - Dong, Q
AU - Fu, Q
AU - Deng, K
AU - Wang, X
AU - Wang, L
AU - Peng, S
AU - Wu, J
AU - Li, W
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Zhu, Y
AU - He, X
AU - Du, Y
ID - 7497
IS - 9
JF - Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
SN - 1672-9072
TI - Colonization of endophyte Acremonium sp. D212 in Panax notoginseng and rice mediated by auxin and jasmonic acid
VL - 62
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the past two decades, our understanding of the transition to turbulence in shear flows with linearly stable laminar solutions has greatly improved. Regarding the susceptibility of the laminar flow, two concepts have been particularly useful: the edge states and the minimal seeds. In this nonlinear picture of the transition, the basin boundary of turbulence is set by the edge state's stable manifold and this manifold comes closest in energy to the laminar equilibrium at the minimal seed. We begin this paper by presenting numerical experiments in which three-dimensional perturbations are too energetic to trigger turbulence in pipe flow but they do lead to turbulence when their amplitude is reduced. We show that this seemingly counterintuitive observation is in fact consistent with the fully nonlinear description of the transition mediated by the edge state. In order to understand the physical mechanisms behind this process, we measure the turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation rates as a function of the radial coordinate. Our main observation is that the transition to turbulence relies on the energy amplification away from the wall, as opposed to the turbulence itself, whose energy is predominantly produced near the wall. This observation is further supported by the similar analyses on the minimal seeds and the edge states. Furthermore, we show that the time evolution of production-over-dissipation curves provides a clear distinction between the different initial amplification stages of the transition to turbulence from the minimal seed.
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Marensi, Elena
AU - Willis, Ashley P.
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 7534
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review Fluids
SN - 2469-990X
TI - Upper edge of chaos and the energetics of transition in pipe flow
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider general self-adjoint polynomials in several independent random matrices whose entries are centered and have the same variance. We show that under certain conditions the local law holds up to the optimal scale, i.e., the eigenvalue density on scales just above the eigenvalue spacing follows the global density of states which is determined by free probability theory. We prove that these conditions hold for general homogeneous polynomials of degree two and for symmetrized products of independent matrices with i.i.d. entries, thus establishing the optimal bulk local law for these classes of ensembles. In particular, we generalize a similar result of Anderson for anticommutator. For more general polynomials our conditions are effectively checkable numerically.
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Nemish, Yuriy
ID - 7512
IS - 12
JF - Journal of Functional Analysis
SN - 00221236
TI - Local laws for polynomials of Wigner matrices
VL - 278
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper we study the joint convexity/concavity of the trace functions Ψp,q,s(A,B)=Tr(Bq2K∗ApKBq2)s, p,q,s∈R,
where A and B are positive definite matrices and K is any fixed invertible matrix. We will give full range of (p,q,s)∈R3 for Ψp,q,s to be jointly convex/concave for all K. As a consequence, we confirm a conjecture of Carlen, Frank and Lieb. In particular, we confirm a weaker conjecture of Audenaert and Datta and obtain the full range of (α,z) for α-z Rényi relative entropies to be monotone under completely positive trace preserving maps. We also give simpler proofs of many known results, including the concavity of Ψp,0,1/p for 0