TY - JOUR
AB - The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type-specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms.
AU - Pěnčík, Aleš
AU - Simonovik, Biljana
AU - Petersson, Sara
AU - Henyková, Eva
AU - Simon, Sibu
AU - Greenham, Kathleen
AU - Zhang, Yi
AU - Kowalczyk, Mariusz
AU - Estelle, Mark
AU - Zažímalová, Eva
AU - Novák, Ondřej
AU - Sandberg, Göran
AU - Ljung, Karin
ID - 511
IS - 10
JF - Plant Cell
TI - Regulation of auxin homeostasis and gradients in Arabidopsis roots through the formation of the indole-3-acetic acid catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In plants, changes in local auxin concentrations can trigger a range of developmental processes as distinct tissues respond differently to the same auxin stimulus. However, little is known about how auxin is interpreted by individual cell types. We performed a transcriptomic analysis of responses to auxin within four distinct tissues of the Arabidopsis thaliana root and demonstrate that different cell types show competence for discrete responses. The majority of auxin‐responsive genes displayed a spatial bias in their induction or repression. The novel data set was used to examine how auxin influences tissue‐specific transcriptional regulation of cell‐identity markers. Additionally, the data were used in combination with spatial expression maps of the root to plot a transcriptomic auxin‐response gradient across the apical and basal meristem. The readout revealed a strong correlation for thousands of genes between the relative response to auxin and expression along the longitudinal axis of the root. This data set and comparative analysis provide a transcriptome‐level spatial breakdown of the response to auxin within an organ where this hormone mediates many aspects of development.
AU - Bargmann, Bastiaan
AU - Vanneste, Steffen
AU - Krouk, Gabriel
AU - Nawy, Tal
AU - Efroni, Idan
AU - Shani, Eilon
AU - Choe, Goh
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Bergmann, Dominique
AU - Estelle, Mark
AU - Birnbaum, Kenneth
ID - 516
IS - 1
JF - Molecular Systems Biology
TI - A map of cell type‐specific auxin responses
VL - 9
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - In this work we present a flexible tool for tumor progression, which simulates the evolutionary dynamics of cancer. Tumor progression implements a multi-type branching process where the key parameters are the fitness landscape, the mutation rate, and the average time of cell division. The fitness of a cancer cell depends on the mutations it has accumulated. The input to our tool could be any fitness landscape, mutation rate, and cell division time, and the tool produces the growth dynamics and all relevant statistics.
AU - Reiter, Johannes
AU - Bozic, Ivana
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5399
SN - 2664-1690
TI - TTP: Tool for Tumor Progression
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with ω-regular conditions specified as parity objectives. The class of ω-regular languages extends regular languages to infinite strings and provides a robust specification language to express all properties used in verification, and parity objectives are canonical forms to express ω-regular conditions. The qualitative analysis problem given a POMDP and a parity objective asks whether there is a strategy to ensure that the objective is satis- fied with probability 1 (resp. positive probability). While the qualitative analysis problems are known to be undecidable even for very special cases of parity objectives, we establish decidability (with optimal complexity) of the qualitative analysis problems for POMDPs with all parity objectives under finite- memory strategies. We establish asymptotically optimal (exponential) memory bounds and EXPTIME- completeness of the qualitative analysis problems under finite-memory strategies for POMDPs with parity objectives.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Chmelik, Martin
AU - Tracol, Mathieu
ID - 5400
SN - 2664-1690
TI - What is decidable about partially observable Markov decision processes with ω-regular objectives
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - This document is created as a part of the project “Repository for Research Data at IST Austria”. It summarises the actual initiatives, projects and standards related to the project. It supports the preparation of standards and specifications for the project, which should be considered and followed to ensure interoperability and visibility of the uploaded data.
AU - Porsche, Jana
ID - 5401
TI - Initiatives and projects related to RD
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Linearizability requires that the outcome of calls by competing threads to a concurrent data structure is the same as some sequential execution where each thread has exclusive access to the data structure. In an ordered data structure, such as a queue or a stack, linearizability is ensured by requiring threads commit in the order dictated by the sequential semantics of the data structure; e.g., in a concurrent queue implementation a dequeue can only remove the oldest element.
In this paper, we investigate the impact of this strict ordering, by comparing what linearizability allows to what existing implementations do. We first give an operational definition for linearizability which allows us to build the most general linearizable implementation as a transition system for any given sequential specification. We then use this operational definition to categorize linearizable implementations based on whether they are bound or free. In a bound implementation, whenever all threads observe the same logical state, the updates to the logical state and the temporal order of commits coincide. All existing queue implementations we know of are bound. We then proceed to present, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever free queue implementation. Our experiments show that free implementations have the potential for better performance by suffering less from contention.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Sezgin, Ali
ID - 5402
SN - 2664-1690
TI - How free is your linearizable concurrent data structure?
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider concurrent games played by two-players on a finite state graph, where in every round the players simultaneously choose a move, and the current state along with the joint moves determine the successor state. We study the most fundamental objective for concurrent games, namely, mean-payoff or limit-average objective, where a reward is associated to every transition, and the goal of player 1 is to maximize the long-run average of the rewards, and the objective of player 2 is strictly the opposite (i.e., the games are zero-sum). The path constraint for player 1 could be qualitative, i.e., the mean-payoff is the maximal reward, or arbitrarily close to it; or quantitative, i.e., a given threshold between the minimal and maximal reward. We consider the computation of the almost-sure (resp. positive) winning sets, where player 1 can ensure that the path constraint is satisfied with probability 1 (resp. positive probability). Almost-sure winning with qualitative constraint exactly corresponds to the question whether there exists a strategy to ensure that the payoff is the maximal reward of the game. Our main results for qualitative path constraints are as follows: (1) we establish qualitative determinacy results that show for every state either player 1 has a strategy to ensure almost-sure (resp. positive) winning against all player-2 strategies or player 2 has a spoiling strategy to falsify almost-sure (resp. positive) winning against all player-1 strategies; (2) we present optimal strategy complexity results that precisely characterize the classes of strategies required for almost-sure and positive winning for both players; and (3) we present quadratic time algorithms to compute the almost-sure and the positive winning sets, matching the best known bound of the algorithms for much simpler problems (such as reachability objectives). For quantitative constraints we show that a polynomial time solution for the almost-sure or the positive winning set would imply a solution to a long-standing open problem (of solving the value problem of mean-payoff games) that is not known to be in polynomial time.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
ID - 5403
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Qualitative analysis of concurrent mean-payoff games
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We study finite-state two-player (zero-sum) concurrent mean-payoff games played on a graph. We focus on the important sub-class of ergodic games where all states are visited infinitely often with probability 1. The algorithmic study of ergodic games was initiated in a seminal work of Hoffman and Karp in 1966, but all basic complexity questions have remained unresolved. Our main results for ergodic games are as follows: We establish (1) an optimal exponential bound on the patience of stationary strategies (where patience of a distribution is the inverse of the smallest positive probability and represents a complexity measure of a stationary strategy); (2) the approximation problem lie in FNP; (3) the approximation problem is at least as hard as the decision problem for simple stochastic games (for which NP and coNP is the long-standing best known bound). We show that the exact value can be expressed in the existential theory of the reals, and also establish square-root sum hardness for a related class of games.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
ID - 5404
SN - 2664-1690
TI - The complexity of ergodic games
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The theory of graph games is the foundation for modeling and synthesizing reactive processes. In the synthesis of stochastic processes, we use 2-1/2-player games where some transitions of the game graph are controlled by two adversarial players, the System and the Environment, and the other transitions are determined probabilistically. We consider 2-1/2-player games where the objective of the System is the conjunction of a qualitative objective (specified as a parity condition) and a quantitative objective (specified as a mean-payoff condition). We establish that the problem of deciding whether the System can ensure that the probability to satisfy the mean-payoff parity objective is at least a given threshold is in NP ∩ coNP, matching the best known bound in the special case of 2-player games (where all transitions are deterministic) with only parity objectives, or with only mean-payoff objectives. We present an algorithm running
in time O(d · n^{2d}·MeanGame) to compute the set of almost-sure winning states from which the objective
can be ensured with probability 1, where n is the number of states of the game, d the number of priorities
of the parity objective, and MeanGame is the complexity to compute the set of almost-sure winning states
in 2-1/2-player mean-payoff games. Our results are useful in the synthesis of stochastic reactive systems
with both functional requirement (given as a qualitative objective) and performance requirement (given
as a quantitative objective).
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
AU - Gimbert, Hugo
AU - Oualhadj, Youssouf
ID - 5405
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Perfect-information stochastic mean-payoff parity games
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider the distributed synthesis problem fortemporal logic specifications. Traditionally, the problem has been studied for LTL, and the previous results show that the problem is decidable iff there is no information fork in the architecture. We consider the problem for fragments of LTLand our main results are as follows: (1) We show that the problem is undecidable for architectures with information forks even for the fragment of LTL with temporal operators restricted to next and eventually. (2) For specifications restricted to globally along with non-nested next operators, we establish decidability (in EXPSPACE) for star architectures where the processes receive disjoint inputs, whereas we establish undecidability for architectures containing an information fork-meet structure. (3)Finally, we consider LTL without the next operator, and establish decidability (NEXPTIME-complete) for all architectures for a fragment that consists of a set of safety assumptions, and a set of guarantees where each guarantee is a safety, reachability, or liveness condition.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
ID - 5406
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Distributed synthesis for LTL Fragments
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - This document is created as a part of the project “Repository for Research Data at IST Austria”. It summarises the mandatory features, which need to be fulfilled to provide an institutional repository as a platform and also a service to the scientists at the institute. It also includes optional features, which would be of strong benefit for the scientists and would increase the usage of the repository, and hence the visibility of research at IST Austria.
AU - Porsche, Jana
ID - 5407
TI - Technical requirements and features
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider two-player partial-observation stochastic games where player 1 has partial observation and player 2 has perfect observation. The winning condition we study are omega-regular conditions specified as parity objectives. The qualitative analysis problem given a partial-observation stochastic game and a parity objective asks whether there is a strategy to ensure that the objective is satisfied with probability 1 (resp. positive probability). While the qualitative analysis problems are known to be undecidable even for very special cases of parity objectives, they were shown to be decidable in 2EXPTIME under finite-memory strategies. We improve the complexity and show that the qualitative analysis problems for partial-observation stochastic parity games under finite-memory strategies are
EXPTIME-complete; and also establish optimal (exponential) memory bounds for finite-memory strategies required for qualitative analysis.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
AU - Nain, Sumit
AU - Vardi, Moshe
ID - 5408
SN - 2664-1690
TI - The complexity of partial-observation stochastic parity games with finite-memory strategies
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The edit distance between two (untimed) traces is the minimum cost of a sequence of edit operations (insertion, deletion, or substitution) needed to transform one trace to the other. Edit distances have been extensively studied in the untimed setting, and form the basis for approximate matching of sequences in different domains such as coding theory, parsing, and speech recognition.
In this paper, we lift the study of edit distances from untimed languages to the timed setting. We define an edit distance between timed words which incorporates both the edit distance between the untimed words and the absolute difference in timestamps. Our edit distance between two timed words is computable in polynomial time. Further, we show that the edit distance between a timed word and a timed language generated by a timed automaton, defined as the edit distance between the word and the closest word in the language, is PSPACE-complete. While computing the edit distance between two timed automata is undecidable, we show that the approximate version, where we decide if the edit distance between two timed automata is either less than a given parameter or more than delta away from the parameter, for delta>0, can be solved in exponential space and is EXPSPACE-hard. Our definitions and techniques can be generalized to the setting of hybrid systems, and we show analogous decidability results for rectangular automata.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Majumdar, Rupak
ID - 5409
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Edit distance for timed automata
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Board games, like Tic-Tac-Toe and CONNECT-4, play an important role not only in development of mathematical and logical skills, but also in emotional and social development. In this paper, we address the problem of generating targeted starting positions for such games. This can facilitate new approaches for bringing novice players to mastery, and also leads to discovery of interesting game variants.
Our approach generates starting states of varying hardness levels for player 1 in a two-player board game, given rules of the board game, the desired number of steps required for player 1 to win, and the expertise levels of the two players. Our approach leverages symbolic methods and iterative simulation to efficiently search the extremely large state space. We present experimental results that include discovery of states of varying hardness levels for several simple grid-based board games. Also, the presence of such states for standard game variants like Tic-Tac-Toe on board size 4x4 opens up new games to be played that have not been played for ages since the default start state is heavily biased.
AU - Ahmed, Umair
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Gulwani, Sumit
ID - 5410
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Automatic generation of alternative starting positions for traditional board games
ER -
TY - CHAP
AU - Dragoi, Cezara
AU - Gupta, Ashutosh
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 5747
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Computer Aided Verification
TI - Automatic Linearizability Proofs of Concurrent Objects with Cooperating Updates
VL - 8044
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Due to their sessile lifestyles, plants need to deal with the limitations and stresses imposed by the changing environment. Plants cope with these by a remarkable developmental flexibility, which is embedded in their strategy to survive. Plants can adjust their size, shape and number of organs, bend according to gravity and light, and regenerate tissues that were damaged, utilizing a coordinating, intercellular signal, the plant hormone, auxin. Another versatile signal is the cation, Ca2+, which is a crucial second messenger for many rapid cellular processes during responses to a wide range of endogenous and environmental signals, such as hormones, light, drought stress and others. Auxin is a good candidate for one of these Ca2+-activating signals. However, the role of auxin-induced Ca2+ signaling is poorly understood. Here, we will provide an overview of possible developmental and physiological roles, as well as mechanisms underlying the interconnection of Ca2+ and auxin signaling.
AU - Vanneste, Steffen
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 10895
IS - 4
JF - Plants
KW - Plant Science
KW - Ecology
KW - Ecology
KW - Evolution
KW - Behavior and Systematics
SN - 2223-7747
TI - Calcium: The missing link in auxin action
VL - 2
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - In order to guarantee that each method of a data structure updates the logical state exactly once, al-most all non-blocking implementations employ Compare-And-Swap (CAS) based synchronization. For FIFO queue implementations this translates into concurrent enqueue or dequeue methods competing among themselves to update the same variable, the tail or the head, respectively, leading to high contention and poor scalability. Recent non-blocking queue implementations try to alleviate high contentionby increasing the number of contention points, all the while using CAS-based synchronization. Furthermore, obtaining a wait-free implementation with competition is achieved by additional synchronization which leads to further degradation of performance.In this paper we formalize the notion of competitiveness of a synchronizing statement which can beused as a measure for the scalability of concurrent implementations. We present a new queue implementation, the Speculative Pairing (SP) queue, which, as we show, decreases competitiveness by using Fetch-And-Increment (FAI) instead of CAS. We prove that the SP queue is linearizable and lock-free.We also show that replacing CAS with FAI leads to wait-freedom for dequeue methods without an adverse effect on performance. In fact, our experiments suggest that the SP queue can perform and scale better than the state-of-the-art queue implementations.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Payer, Hannes
AU - Sezgin, Ali
ID - 6440
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Replacing competition with cooperation to achieve scalable lock-free FIFO queues
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study two-player zero-sum games over infinite-state graphs equipped with ωB and finitary conditions. Our first contribution is about the strategy complexity, i.e the memory required for winning strategies: we prove that over general infinite-state graphs, memoryless strategies are sufficient for finitary Büchi, and finite-memory suffices for finitary parity games. We then study pushdown games with boundedness conditions, with two contributions. First we prove a collapse result for pushdown games with ωB-conditions, implying the decidability of solving these games. Second we consider pushdown games with finitary parity along with stack boundedness conditions, and show that solving these games is EXPTIME-complete.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Fijalkow, Nathanaël
ID - 1374
T2 - 22nd EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic
TI - Infinite-state games with finitary conditions
VL - 23
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - It is often difficult to correctly implement a Boolean controller for a complex system, especially when concurrency is involved. Yet, it may be easy to formally specify a controller. For instance, for a pipelined processor it suffices to state that the visible behavior of the pipelined system should be identical to a non-pipelined reference system (Burch-Dill paradigm). We present a novel procedure to efficiently synthesize multiple Boolean control signals from a specification given as a quantified first-order formula (with a specific quantifier structure). Our approach uses uninterpreted functions to abstract details of the design. We construct an unsatisfiable SMT formula from the given specification. Then, from just one proof of unsatisfiability, we use a variant of Craig interpolation to compute multiple coordinated interpolants that implement the Boolean control signals. Our method avoids iterative learning and back-substitution of the control functions. We applied our approach to synthesize a controller for a simple two-stage pipelined processor, and present first experimental results.
AU - Hofferek, Georg
AU - Gupta, Ashutosh
AU - Könighofer, Bettina
AU - Jiang, Jie
AU - Bloem, Roderick
ID - 1385
T2 - 2013 Formal Methods in Computer-Aided Design
TI - Synthesizing multiple boolean functions using interpolation on a single proof
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Choices made by nondeterministic word automata depend on both the past (the prefix of the word read so far) and the future (the suffix yet to be read). In several applications, most notably synthesis, the future is diverse or unknown, leading to algorithms that are based on deterministic automata. Hoping to retain some of the advantages of nondeterministic automata, researchers have studied restricted classes of nondeterministic automata. Three such classes are nondeterministic automata that are good for trees (GFT; i.e., ones that can be expanded to tree automata accepting the derived tree languages, thus whose choices should satisfy diverse futures), good for games (GFG; i.e., ones whose choices depend only on the past), and determinizable by pruning (DBP; i.e., ones that embody equivalent deterministic automata). The theoretical properties and relative merits of the different classes are still open, having vagueness on whether they really differ from deterministic automata. In particular, while DBP ⊆ GFG ⊆ GFT, it is not known whether every GFT automaton is GFG and whether every GFG automaton is DBP. Also open is the possible succinctness of GFG and GFT automata compared to deterministic automata. We study these problems for ω-regular automata with all common acceptance conditions. We show that GFT=GFG⊃DBP, and describe a determinization construction for GFG automata.
AU - Boker, Udi
AU - Kuperberg, Denis
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Skrzypczak, Michał
ID - 1387
IS - PART 2
TI - Nondeterminism in the presence of a diverse or unknown future
VL - 7966
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Motivated by the analysis of highly dynamic message-passing systems, i.e. unbounded thread creation, mobility, etc. we present a framework for the analysis of depth-bounded systems. Depth-bounded systems are one of the most expressive known fragment of the π-calculus for which interesting verification problems are still decidable. Even though they are infinite state systems depth-bounded systems are well-structured, thus can be analyzed algorithmically. We give an interpretation of depth-bounded systems as graph-rewriting systems. This gives more flexibility and ease of use to apply depth-bounded systems to other type of systems like shared memory concurrency.
First, we develop an adequate domain of limits for depth-bounded systems, a prerequisite for the effective representation of downward-closed sets. Downward-closed sets are needed by forward saturation-based algorithms to represent potentially infinite sets of states. Then, we present an abstract interpretation framework to compute the covering set of well-structured transition systems. Because, in general, the covering set is not computable, our abstraction over-approximates the actual covering set. Our abstraction captures the essence of acceleration based-algorithms while giving up enough precision to ensure convergence. We have implemented the analysis in the PICASSO tool and show that it is accurate in practice. Finally, we build some further analyses like termination using the covering set as starting point.
AU - Zufferey, Damien
ID - 1405
TI - Analysis of dynamic message passing programs
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Stimfit is a free cross-platform software package for viewing and analyzing electrophysiological data. It supports most standard file types for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical formats. Its analysis algorithms have been used and validated in several experimental laboratories. Its embedded Python scripting interface makes Stimfit highly extensible and customizable.
AU - Schlögl, Alois
AU - Jonas, Peter M
AU - Schmidt-Hieber, C.
AU - Guzman, S. J.
ID - 10396
IS - SI-1-Track-G
JF - Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik
KW - biomedical engineering
KW - data analysis
KW - free software
SN - 0013-5585
TI - Stimfit: A fast visualization and analysis environment for cellular neurophysiology
VL - 58
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this work we present a flexible tool for tumor progression, which simulates the evolutionary dynamics of cancer. Tumor progression implements a multi-type branching process where the key parameters are the fitness landscape, the mutation rate, and the average time of cell division. The fitness of a cancer cell depends on the mutations it has accumulated. The input to our tool could be any fitness landscape, mutation rate, and cell division time, and the tool produces the growth dynamics and all relevant statistics.
AU - Reiter, Johannes
AU - Božić, Ivana
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 2000
T2 - Proceedings of 25th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification
TI - TTP: Tool for tumor progression
VL - 8044
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Traditional statistical methods for confidentiality protection of statistical databases do not scale well to deal with GWAS databases especially in terms of guarantees regarding protection from linkage to external information. The more recent concept of differential privacy, introduced by the cryptographic community, is an approach which provides a rigorous definition of privacy with meaningful privacy guarantees in the presence of arbitrary external information, although the guarantees may come at a serious price in terms of data utility. Building on such notions, we propose new methods to release aggregate GWAS data without compromising an individual’s privacy. We present methods for releasing differentially private minor allele frequencies, chi-square statistics and p-values. We compare these approaches on simulated data and on a GWAS study of canine hair length involving 685 dogs. We also propose a privacy-preserving method for finding genome-wide associations based on a differentially-private approach to penalized logistic regression.
AU - Uhler, Caroline
AU - Slavkovic, Aleksandra
AU - Fienberg, Stephen
ID - 2009
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality
TI - Privacy-preserving data sharing for genome-wide association studies
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many algorithms for inferring causality rely heavily on the faithfulness assumption. The main justification for imposing this assumption is that the set of unfaithful distributions has Lebesgue measure zero, since it can be seen as a collection of hypersurfaces in a hypercube. However, due to sampling error the faithfulness condition alone is not sufficient for statistical estimation, and strong-faithfulness has been proposed and assumed to achieve uniform or high-dimensional consistency. In contrast to the plain faithfulness assumption, the set of distributions that is not strong-faithful has nonzero Lebesgue measure and in fact, can be surprisingly large as we show in this paper. We study the strong-faithfulness condition from a geometric and combinatorial point of view and give upper and lower bounds on the Lebesgue measure of strong-faithful distributions for various classes of directed acyclic graphs. Our results imply fundamental limitations for the PC-algorithm and potentially also for other algorithms based on partial correlation testing in the Gaussian case.
AU - Uhler, Caroline
AU - Raskutti, Garvesh
AU - Bühlmann, Peter
AU - Yu, Bin
ID - 2010
IS - 2
JF - The Annals of Statistics
TI - Geometry of the faithfulness assumption in causal inference
VL - 41
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - There is a trade-off between performance and correctness in implementing concurrent data structures. Better performance may be achieved at the expense of relaxing correctness, by redefining the semantics of data structures. We address such a redefinition of data structure semantics and present a systematic and formal framework for obtaining new data structures by quantitatively relaxing existing ones. We view a data structure as a sequential specification S containing all "legal" sequences over an alphabet of method calls. Relaxing the data structure corresponds to defining a distance from any sequence over the alphabet to the sequential specification: the k-relaxed sequential specification contains all sequences over the alphabet within distance k from the original specification. In contrast to other existing work, our relaxations are semantic (distance in terms of data structure states). As an instantiation of our framework, we present two simple yet generic relaxation schemes, called out-of-order and stuttering relaxation, along with several ways of computing distances. We show that the out-of-order relaxation, when further instantiated to stacks, queues, and priority queues, amounts to tolerating bounded out-of-order behavior, which cannot be captured by a purely syntactic relaxation (distance in terms of sequence manipulation, e.g. edit distance). We give concurrent implementations of relaxed data structures and demonstrate that bounded relaxations provide the means for trading correctness for performance in a controlled way. The relaxations are monotonic which further highlights the trade-off: increasing k increases the number of permitted sequences, which as we demonstrate can lead to better performance. Finally, since a relaxed stack or queue also implements a pool, we actually have new concurrent pool implementations that outperform the state-of-the-art ones.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Kirsch, Christoph
AU - Payer, Hannes
AU - Sezgin, Ali
AU - Sokolova, Ana
ID - 2181
SN - 978-1-4503-1832-7
T2 - Proceedings of the 40th annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming language
TI - Quantitative relaxation of concurrent data structures
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A straight skeleton is a well-known geometric structure, and several algorithms exist to construct the straight skeleton for a given polygon. In this paper, we ask the reverse question: Given the straight skeleton (in form of a tree with a drawing in the plane, but with the exact position of the leaves unspecified), can we reconstruct the polygon? We show that in most cases there exists at most one polygon; in the remaining case there is an infinite number of polygons determined by one angle that can range in an interval. We can find this (set of) polygon(s) in linear time in the Real RAM computer model.
AU - Biedl, Therese
AU - Held, Martin
AU - Huber, Stefan
ID - 2210
T2 - 29th European Workshop on Computational Geometry
TI - Reconstructing polygons from embedded straight skeletons
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We describe new extensions of the Vampire theorem prover for computing tree interpolants. These extensions generalize Craig interpolation in Vampire, and can also be used to derive sequence interpolants. We evaluated our implementation on a large number of examples over the theory of linear integer arithmetic and integer-indexed arrays, with and without quantifiers. When compared to other methods, our experiments show that some examples could only be solved by our implementation.
AU - Blanc, Régis
AU - Gupta, Ashutosh
AU - Kovács, Laura
AU - Kragl, Bernhard
ID - 2237
TI - Tree interpolation in Vampire
VL - 8312
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We show that modal logic over universally first-order definable classes of transitive frames is decidable. More precisely, let K be an arbitrary class of transitive Kripke frames definable by a universal first-order sentence. We show that the global and finite global satisfiability problems of modal logic over K are decidable in NP, regardless of choice of K. We also show that the local satisfiability and the finite local satisfiability problems of modal logic over K are decidable in NEXPTIME.
AU - Michaliszyn, Jakub
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 2243
TI - Elementary modal logics over transitive structures
VL - 23
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider two systems (α1,...,αm) and (β1,...,βn) of curves drawn on a compact two-dimensional surface ℳ with boundary. Each αi and each βj is either an arc meeting the boundary of ℳ at its two endpoints, or a closed curve. The αi are pairwise disjoint except for possibly sharing endpoints, and similarly for the βj. We want to "untangle" the βj from the αi by a self-homeomorphism of ℳ; more precisely, we seek an homeomorphism φ: ℳ → ℳ fixing the boundary of ℳ pointwise such that the total number of crossings of the αi with the φ(βj) is as small as possible. This problem is motivated by an application in the algorithmic theory of embeddings and 3-manifolds. We prove that if ℳ is planar, i.e., a sphere with h ≥ 0 boundary components ("holes"), then O(mn) crossings can be achieved (independently of h), which is asymptotically tight, as an easy lower bound shows. In general, for an arbitrary (orientable or nonorientable) surface ℳ with h holes and of (orientable or nonorientable) genus g ≥ 0, we obtain an O((m + n)4) upper bound, again independent of h and g.
AU - Matoušek, Jiří
AU - Sedgwick, Eric
AU - Tancer, Martin
AU - Wagner, Uli
ID - 2244
TI - Untangling two systems of noncrossing curves
VL - 8242
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cooperative behavior, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a wide spread phenomenon. Here we study direct reciprocity in the context of the alternating Prisoner's Dilemma. We consider all strategies that can be implemented by one and two-state automata. We calculate the payoff matrix of all pairwise encounters in the presence of noise. We explore deterministic selection dynamics with and without mutation. Using different error rates and payoff values, we observe convergence to a small number of distinct equilibria. Two of them are uncooperative strict Nash equilibria representing always-defect (ALLD) and Grim. The third equilibrium is mixed and represents a cooperative alliance of several strategies, dominated by a strategy which we call Forgiver. Forgiver cooperates whenever the opponent has cooperated; it defects once when the opponent has defected, but subsequently Forgiver attempts to re-establish cooperation even if the opponent has defected again. Forgiver is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, but the alliance, which it rules, is asymptotically stable. For a wide range of parameter values the most commonly observed outcome is convergence to the mixed equilibrium, dominated by Forgiver. Our results show that although forgiving might incur a short-term loss it can lead to a long-term gain. Forgiveness facilitates stable cooperation in the presence of exploitation and noise.
AU - Zagorsky, Benjamin
AU - Reiter, Johannes
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 2247
IS - 12
JF - PLoS One
TI - Forgiver triumphs in alternating prisoner's dilemma
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Linked (Open) Data - bibliographic data on the Semantic Web. Report of the Working Group on Linked Data to the plenary assembly of the Austrian Library Network (translation of the title). Linked Data stands for a certain approach to publishing data on the Web. The underlying idea is to harmonise heterogeneous data sources of different origin in order to improve their accessibility and interoperability, effectively making them queryable as a big distributed database. This report summarises relevant developments in Europe as well as the Linked Data Working Group‘s strategic and technical considerations regarding the publishing of the Austrian Library Network’s (OBV’s) bibliographic datasets. It concludes with the mutual agreement that the implementation of Linked Data principles within the OBV can only be taken into consideration accompanied by a discussion about the provision of the datasets under a free license.
AU - Danowski, Patrick
AU - Goldfarb, Doron
AU - Schaffner, Verena
AU - Seidler, Wolfram
ID - 2256
IS - 3/4
JF - VÖB Mitteilungen
TI - Linked (Open) Data - Bibliographische Daten im Semantic Web
VL - 66
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In a digital signature scheme with message recovery, rather than transmitting the message m and its signature σ, a single enhanced signature τ is transmitted. The verifier is able to recover m from τ and at the same time verify its authenticity. The two most important parameters of such a scheme are its security and overhead |τ| − |m|. A simple argument shows that for any scheme with “n bits security” |τ| − |m| ≥ n, i.e., the overhead is lower bounded by the security parameter n. Currently, the best known constructions in the random oracle model are far from this lower bound requiring an overhead of n + logq h , where q h is the number of queries to the random oracle. In this paper we give a construction which basically matches the n bit lower bound. We propose a simple digital signature scheme with n + o(logq h ) bits overhead, where q h denotes the number of random oracle queries.
Our construction works in two steps. First, we propose a signature scheme with message recovery having optimal overhead in a new ideal model, the random invertible function model. Second, we show that a four-round Feistel network with random oracles as round functions is tightly “public-indifferentiable” from a random invertible function. At the core of our indifferentiability proof is an almost tight upper bound for the expected number of edges of the densest “small” subgraph of a random Cayley graph, which may be of independent interest.
AU - Kiltz, Eike
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Szegedy, Mario
ID - 2258
TI - Digital signatures with minimal overhead from indifferentiable random invertible functions
VL - 8042
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The learning with rounding (LWR) problem, introduced by Banerjee, Peikert and Rosen at EUROCRYPT ’12, is a variant of learning with errors (LWE), where one replaces random errors with deterministic rounding. The LWR problem was shown to be as hard as LWE for a setting of parameters where the modulus and modulus-to-error ratio are super-polynomial. In this work we resolve the main open problem and give a new reduction that works for a larger range of parameters, allowing for a polynomial modulus and modulus-to-error ratio. In particular, a smaller modulus gives us greater efficiency, and a smaller modulus-to-error ratio gives us greater security, which now follows from the worst-case hardness of GapSVP with polynomial (rather than super-polynomial) approximation factors.
As a tool in the reduction, we show that there is a “lossy mode” for the LWR problem, in which LWR samples only reveal partial information about the secret. This property gives us several interesting new applications, including a proof that LWR remains secure with weakly random secrets of sufficient min-entropy, and very simple constructions of deterministic encryption, lossy trapdoor functions and reusable extractors.
Our approach is inspired by a technique of Goldwasser et al. from ICS ’10, which implicitly showed the existence of a “lossy mode” for LWE. By refining this technique, we also improve on the parameters of that work to only requiring a polynomial (instead of super-polynomial) modulus and modulus-to-error ratio.
AU - Alwen, Joel F
AU - Krenn, Stephan
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Wichs, Daniel
ID - 2259
IS - 1
TI - Learning with rounding, revisited: New reduction properties and applications
VL - 8042
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is one of the most complex cryptographic protocols deployed in practice. It allows an embedded secure processor known as a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) to attest to the configuration of its host computer without violating the owner’s privacy. DAA has been standardized by the Trusted Computing Group and ISO/IEC.
The security of the DAA standard and all existing schemes is analyzed in the random-oracle model. We provide the first constructions of DAA in the standard model, that is, without relying on random oracles. Our constructions use new building blocks, including the first efficient signatures of knowledge in the standard model, which have many applications beyond DAA.
AU - Bernhard, David
AU - Fuchsbauer, Georg
AU - Ghadafi, Essam
ID - 2260
TI - Efficient signatures of knowledge and DAA in the standard model
VL - 7954
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Faithful progression through the cell cycle is crucial to the maintenance and developmental potential of stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) and intermediate neural progenitor cells (NPCs) employ a zinc-finger transcription factor specificity protein 2 (Sp2) as a cell cycle regulator in two temporally and spatially distinct progenitor domains. Differential conditional deletion of Sp2 in early embryonic cerebral cortical progenitors, and perinatal olfactory bulb progenitors disrupted transitions through G1, G2 and M phases, whereas DNA synthesis appeared intact. Cell-autonomous function of Sp2 was identified by deletion of Sp2 using mosaic analysis with double markers, which clearly established that conditional Sp2-null NSCs and NPCs are M phase arrested in vivo. Importantly, conditional deletion of Sp2 led to a decline in the generation of NPCs and neurons in the developing and postnatal brains. Our findings implicate Sp2-dependent mechanisms as novel regulators of cell cycle progression, the absence of which disrupts neurogenesis in the embryonic and postnatal brain.
AU - Liang, Huixuan
AU - Xiao, Guanxi
AU - Yin, Haifeng
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Horowitz, Jonathan
AU - Ghashghaei, Troy
ID - 2264
IS - 3
JF - Development
TI - Neural development is dependent on the function of specificity protein 2 in cell cycle progression
VL - 140
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Representation languages for coalitional games are a key research area in algorithmic game theory. There is an inher-
ent tradeoff between how general a language is, allowing it to capture more elaborate games, and how hard it is computationally to optimize and solve such games. One prominent such language is the simple yet expressive
Weighted Graph Games (WGGs) representation (Deng and Papadimitriou 1994), which maintains knowledge about synergies between agents in the form of an edge weighted graph. We consider the problem of finding the optimal coalition structure in WGGs. The agents in such games are vertices in a graph, and the value of a coalition is the sum of the weights of the edges present between coalition members. The optimal coalition structure is a partition of the agents to coalitions, that maximizes the sum of utilities obtained by the coalitions. We show that finding the optimal coalition structure is not only hard for general graphs, but is also intractable for restricted families such as planar graphs which are amenable for many other combinatorial problems. We then provide algorithms with constant factor approximations for planar, minorfree and bounded degree graphs.
AU - Bachrach, Yoram
AU - Kohli, Pushmeet
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Zadimoghaddam, Morteza
ID - 2270
TI - Optimal Coalition Structures in Cooperative Graph Games
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) with pattern-based potentials defined on a chain. In this model the energy of a string (labeling) x1...xn is the sum of terms over intervals [i,j] where each term is non-zero only if the substring xi...xj equals a prespecified pattern α. Such CRFs can be naturally applied to many sequence tagging problems.
We present efficient algorithms for the three standard inference tasks in a CRF, namely computing (i) the partition function, (ii) marginals, and (iii) computing the MAP. Their complexities are respectively O(nL), O(nLℓmax) and O(nLmin{|D|,log(ℓmax+1)}) where L is the combined length of input patterns, ℓmax is the maximum length of a pattern, and D is the input alphabet. This improves on the previous algorithms of (Ye et al., 2009) whose complexities are respectively O(nL|D|), O(n|Γ|L2ℓ2max) and O(nL|D|), where |Γ| is the number of input patterns.
In addition, we give an efficient algorithm for sampling. Finally, we consider the case of non-positive weights. (Komodakis & Paragios, 2009) gave an O(nL) algorithm for computing the MAP. We present a modification that has the same worst-case complexity but can beat it in the best case.
AU - Takhanov, Rustem
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
ID - 2272
IS - 3
T2 - ICML'13 Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on International
TI - Inference algorithms for pattern-based CRFs on sequence data
VL - 28
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We propose a new family of message passing techniques for MAP estimation in graphical models which we call Sequential Reweighted Message Passing (SRMP). Special cases include well-known techniques such as Min-Sum Diusion (MSD) and a faster Sequential Tree-Reweighted Message Passing (TRW-S). Importantly, our derivation is simpler than the original derivation of TRW-S, and does not involve a decomposition into trees. This allows easy generalizations. We present such a generalization for the case of higher-order graphical models, and test it on several real-world problems with promising results.
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
ID - 2273
TI - Reweighted message passing revisited
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Proofs of work (PoW) have been suggested by Dwork and Naor (Crypto'92) as protection to a shared resource. The basic idea is to ask the service requestor to dedicate some non-trivial amount of computational work to every request. The original applications included prevention of spam and protection against denial of service attacks. More recently, PoWs have been used to prevent double spending in the Bitcoin digital currency system.
In this work, we put forward an alternative concept for PoWs -- so-called proofs of space (PoS), where a service requestor must dedicate a significant amount of disk space as opposed to computation. We construct secure PoS schemes in the random oracle model, using graphs with high "pebbling complexity" and Merkle hash-trees.
AU - Dziembowski, Stefan
AU - Faust, Sebastian
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
ID - 2274
TI - Proofs of Space
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The problem of minimizing the Potts energy function frequently occurs in computer vision applications. One way to tackle this NP-hard problem was proposed by Kovtun [19, 20]. It identifies a part of an optimal solution by running k maxflow computations, where k is the number of labels. The number of “labeled” pixels can be significant in some applications, e.g. 50-93% in our tests for stereo. We show how to reduce the runtime to O (log k) maxflow computations (or one parametric maxflow computation). Furthermore, the output of our algorithm allows to speed-up the subsequent alpha expansion for the unlabeled part, or can be used as it is for time-critical applications. To derive our technique, we generalize the algorithm of Felzenszwalb et al. [7] for Tree Metrics . We also show a connection to k-submodular functions from combinatorial optimization, and discuss k-submodular relaxations for general energy functions.
AU - Gridchyn, Igor
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
ID - 2276
TI - Potts model, parametric maxflow and k-submodular functions
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider two-player games played on weighted directed graphs with mean-payoff and total-payoff objectives, two classical quantitative objectives. While for single-dimensional games the complexity and memory bounds for both objectives coincide, we show that in contrast to multi-dimensional mean-payoff games that are known to be coNP-complete, multi-dimensional total-payoff games are undecidable. We introduce conservative approximations of these objectives, where the payoff is considered over a local finite window sliding along a play, instead of the whole play. For single dimension, we show that (i) if the window size is polynomial, deciding the winner takes polynomial time, and (ii) the existence of a bounded window can be decided in NP ∩ coNP, and is at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games. For multiple dimensions, we show that (i) the problem with fixed window size is EXPTIME-complete, and (ii) there is no primitive-recursive algorithm to decide the existence of a bounded window.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
AU - Randour, Mickael
AU - Raskin, Jean
ID - 2279
TI - Looking at mean-payoff and total-payoff through windows
VL - 8172
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The problem of packing ellipsoids of different sizes and shapes into an ellipsoidal container so as to minimize a measure of overlap between ellipsoids is considered. A bilevel optimization formulation is given, together with an algorithm for the general case and a simpler algorithm for the special case in which all ellipsoids are in fact spheres. Convergence results are proved and computational experience is described and illustrated. The motivating application-chromosome organization in the human cell nucleus-is discussed briefly, and some illustrative results are presented.
AU - Uhler, Caroline
AU - Wright, Stephen
ID - 2280
IS - 4
JF - SIAM Review
TI - Packing ellipsoids with overlap
VL - 55
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Epithelial spreading is a common and fundamental aspect of various developmental and disease-related processes such as epithelial closure and wound healing. A key challenge for epithelial tissues undergoing spreading is to increase their surface area without disrupting epithelial integrity. Here we show that orienting cell divisions by tension constitutes an efficient mechanism by which the enveloping cell layer (EVL) releases anisotropic tension while undergoing spreading during zebrafish epiboly. The control of EVL cell-division orientation by tension involves cell elongation and requires myosin II activity to align the mitotic spindle with the main tension axis. We also found that in the absence of tension-oriented cell divisions and in the presence of increased tissue tension, EVL cells undergo ectopic fusions, suggesting that the reduction of tension anisotropy by oriented cell divisions is required to prevent EVL cells from fusing. We conclude that cell-division orientation by tension constitutes a key mechanism for limiting tension anisotropy and thus promoting tissue spreading during EVL epiboly.
AU - Campinho, Pedro
AU - Behrndt, Martin
AU - Ranft, Jonas
AU - Risler, Thomas
AU - Minc, Nicolas
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 2282
JF - Nature Cell Biology
TI - Tension-oriented cell divisions limit anisotropic tissue tension in epithelial spreading during zebrafish epiboly
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The spatiotemporal control of cell divisions is a key factor in epithelial morphogenesis and patterning. Mao et al (2013) now describe how differential rates of proliferation within the Drosophila wing disc epithelium give rise to anisotropic tissue tension in peripheral/proximal regions of the disc. Such global tissue tension anisotropy in turn determines the orientation of cell divisions by controlling epithelial cell elongation.
AU - Campinho, Pedro
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 2286
IS - 21
JF - EMBO Journal
TI - The force and effect of cell proliferation
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Negative frequency-dependent selection should result in equal sex ratios in large populations of dioecious flowering plants, but deviations from equality are commonly reported. A variety of ecological and genetic factors can explain biased sex ratios, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Most dioecious species are long-lived and/or clonal complicating efforts to identify stages during the life cycle when biases develop. We investigated the demographic correlates of sex-ratio variation in two chromosome races of Rumex hastatulus, an annual, wind-pollinated colonizer of open habitats from the southern USA. We examined sex ratios in 46 populations and evaluated the hypothesis that the proximity of males in the local mating environment, through its influence on gametophytic selection, is the primary cause of female-biased sex ratios. Female-biased sex ratios characterized most populations of R. hastatulus (mean sex ratio = 0.62), with significant female bias in 89% of populations. Large, high-density populations had the highest proportion of females, whereas smaller, low-density populations had sex ratios closer to equality. Progeny sex ratios were more female biased when males were in closer proximity to females, a result consistent with the gametophytic selection hypothesis. Our results suggest that interactions between demographic and genetic factors are probably the main cause of female-biased sex ratios in R. hastatulus. The annual life cycle of this species may limit the scope for selection against males and may account for the weaker degree of bias in comparison with perennial Rumex species.
AU - Pickup, Melinda
AU - Barrett, Spencer
ID - 2287
IS - 3
JF - Ecology and Evolution
TI - The influence of demography and local mating environment on sex ratios in a wind-pollinated dioecious plant
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness, which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 2289
IS - 4
JF - Computer Science Research and Development
TI - Quantitative reactive modeling and verification
VL - 28
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The plant hormone indole-acetic acid (auxin) is essential for many aspects of plant development. Auxin-mediated growth regulation typically involves the establishment of an auxin concentration gradient mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters. The localization of auxin carriers and their amount at the plasma membrane are controlled by membrane trafficking processes such as secretion, endocytosis, and recycling. In contrast to endocytosis or recycling, how the secretory pathway mediates the localization of auxin carriers is not well understood. In this study we have used the differential cell elongation process during apical hook development to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the post-Golgi trafficking of auxin carriers in Arabidopsis. We show that differential cell elongation during apical hook development is defective in Arabidopsis mutant echidna (ech). ECH protein is required for the trans-Golgi network (TGN)-mediated trafficking of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to the plasma membrane. In contrast, ech mutation only marginally perturbs the trafficking of the highly related auxin influx carrier LIKE-AUX1-3 or the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED-3, both also involved in hook development. Electron tomography reveals that the trafficking defects in ech mutant are associated with the perturbation of secretory vesicle genesis from the TGN. Our results identify differential mechanisms for the post-Golgi trafficking of de novo-synthesized auxin carriers to plasma membrane from the TGN and reveal how trafficking of auxin influx carriers mediates the control of differential cell elongation in apical hook development.
AU - Boutté, Yohann
AU - Jonsson, Kristoffer
AU - Mcfarlane, Heather
AU - Johnson, Errin
AU - Gendre, Delphine
AU - Swarup, Ranjan
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Samuels, Lacey
AU - Robert, Stéphanie
AU - Bhalerao, Rishikesh
ID - 2290
IS - 40
JF - PNAS
TI - ECHIDNA mediated post Golgi trafficking of auxin carriers for differential cell elongation
VL - 110
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Cryptographic access control promises to offer easily distributed trust and broader applicability, while reducing reliance on low-level online monitors. Traditional implementations of cryptographic access control rely on simple cryptographic primitives whereas recent endeavors employ primitives with richer functionality and security guarantees. Worryingly, few of the existing cryptographic access-control schemes come with precise guarantees, the gap between the policy specification and the implementation being analyzed only informally, if at all. In this paper we begin addressing this shortcoming. Unlike prior work that targeted ad-hoc policy specification, we look at the well-established Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model, as used in a typical file system. In short, we provide a precise syntax for a computational version of RBAC, offer rigorous definitions for cryptographic policy enforcement of a large class of RBAC security policies, and demonstrate that an implementation based on attribute-based encryption meets our security notions. We view our main contribution as being at the conceptual level. Although we work with RBAC for concreteness, our general methodology could guide future research for uses of cryptography in other access-control models.
AU - Ferrara, Anna
AU - Fuchsbauer, Georg
AU - Warinschi, Bogdan
ID - 2291
TI - Cryptographically enforced RBAC
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Many computer vision problems have an asymmetric distribution of information between training and test time. In this work, we study the case where we are given additional information about the training data, which however will not be available at test time. This situation is called learning using privileged information (LUPI). We introduce two maximum-margin techniques that are able to make use of this additional source of information, and we show that the framework is applicable to several scenarios that have been studied in computer vision before. Experiments with attributes, bounding boxes, image tags and rationales as additional information in object classification show promising results.
AU - Sharmanska, Viktoriia
AU - Quadrianto, Novi
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 2293
TI - Learning to rank using privileged information
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this work we propose a system for automatic classification of Drosophila embryos into developmental stages.
While the system is designed to solve an actual problem in biological research, we believe that the principle underly-
ing it is interesting not only for biologists, but also for researchers in computer vision. The main idea is to combine two orthogonal sources of information: one is a classifier trained on strongly invariant features, which makes it applicable to images of very different conditions, but also leads to rather noisy predictions. The other is a label propagation step based on a more powerful similarity measure that however is only consistent within specific subsets of the data at a time.
In our biological setup, the information sources are the shape and the staining patterns of embryo images. We show
experimentally that while neither of the methods can be used by itself to achieve satisfactory results, their combina-
tion achieves prediction quality comparable to human performance.
AU - Kazmar, Tomas
AU - Kvon, Evgeny
AU - Stark, Alexander
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 2294
TI - Drosophila Embryo Stage Annotation using Label Propagation
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with ω-regular conditions specified as parity objectives. The qualitative analysis problem given a POMDP and a parity objective asks whether there is a strategy to ensure that the objective is satisfied with probability 1 (resp. positive probability). While the qualitative analysis problems are known to be undecidable even for very special cases of parity objectives, we establish decidability (with optimal EXPTIME-complete complexity) of the qualitative analysis problems for POMDPs with all parity objectives under finite-memory strategies. We also establish asymptotically optimal (exponential) memory bounds.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Chmelik, Martin
AU - Tracol, Mathieu
ID - 2295
TI - What is decidable about partially observable Markov decision processes with omega-regular objectives
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present an overview of mathematical results on the low temperature properties of dilute quantum gases, which have been obtained in the past few years. The presentation includes a discussion of Bose-Einstein condensation, the excitation spectrum for trapped gases and its relation to superfluidity, as well as the appearance of quantized vortices in rotating systems. All these properties are intensely being studied in current experiments on cold atomic gases. We will give a description of the mathematics involved in understanding these phenomena, starting from the underlying many-body Schrödinger equation.
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 2297
IS - 2
JF - Japanese Journal of Mathematics
TI - Hot topics in cold gases: A mathematical physics perspective
VL - 8
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a shape analysis for programs that manipulate overlaid data structures which share sets of objects. The abstract domain contains Separation Logic formulas that (1) combine a per-object separating conjunction with a per-field separating conjunction and (2) constrain a set of variables interpreted as sets of objects. The definition of the abstract domain operators is based on a notion of homomorphism between formulas, viewed as graphs, used recently to define optimal decision procedures for fragments of the Separation Logic. Based on a Frame Rule that supports the two versions of the separating conjunction, the analysis is able to reason in a modular manner about non-overlaid data structures and then, compose information only at a few program points, e.g., procedure returns. We have implemented this analysis in a prototype tool and applied it on several interesting case studies that manipulate overlaid and nested linked lists.
AU - Dragoi, Cezara
AU - Enea, Constantin
AU - Sighireanu, Mihaela
ID - 2298
TI - Local shape analysis for overlaid data structures
VL - 7935
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The standard hardware design flow involves: (a) design of an integrated circuit using a hardware description language, (b) extensive functional and formal verification, and (c) logical synthesis. However, the above-mentioned processes consume significant effort and time. An alternative approach is to use a formal specification language as a high-level hardware description language and synthesize hardware from formal specifications. Our work is a case study of the synthesis of the widely and industrially used AMBA AHB protocol from formal specifications. Bloem et al. presented the first formal specifications for the AMBA AHB Arbiter and synthesized the AHB Arbiter circuit. However, in the first formal specification some important assumptions were missing. Our contributions are as follows: (a) We present detailed formal specifications for the AHB Arbiter incorporating the missing details, and obtain significant improvements in the synthesis results (both with respect to the number of gates in the synthesized circuit and with respect to the time taken to synthesize the circuit), and (b) we present formal specifications to generate compact circuits for the remaining two main components of AMBA AHB, namely, AHB Master and AHB Slave. Thus with systematic description we are able to automatically and completely synthesize an important and widely used industrial protocol.
AU - Godhal, Yashdeep
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 2299
IS - 5-6
JF - International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
TI - Synthesis of AMBA AHB from formal specification: A case study
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic interactions and long-range, power law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. If the strength of the ferromagnetic coupling J is larger than a critical value Jc, then the ground state is homogeneous and ferromagnetic. As the critical value is approached from smaller values of J, it is believed that the ground state consists of a periodic array of stripes (d=2) or slabs (d=3), all of the same size and alternating magnetization. Here we prove rigorously that the ground state energy per site converges to that of the optimal periodic striped or slabbed state, in the limit that J tends to the ferromagnetic transition point. While this theorem does not prove rigorously that the ground state is precisely striped or slabbed, it does prove that in any suitably large box the ground state is striped or slabbed with high probability.
AU - Giuliani, Alessandro
AU - Lieb, Élliott
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 2300
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review B
TI - Realization of stripes and slabs in two and three dimensions
VL - 88
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the complexity of central controller synthesis problems for finite-state Markov decision processes, where the objective is to optimize both the expected mean-payoff performance of the system and its stability. e argue that the basic theoretical notion of expressing the stability in terms of the variance of the mean-payoff (called global variance in our paper) is not always sufficient, since it ignores possible instabilities on respective runs. For this reason we propose alernative definitions of stability, which we call local and hybrid variance, and which express how rewards on each run deviate from the run's own mean-payoff and from the expected mean-payoff, respectively. We show that a strategy ensuring both the expected mean-payoff and the variance below given bounds requires randomization and memory, under all the above semantics of variance. We then look at the problem of determining whether there is a such a strategy. For the global variance, we show that the problem is in PSPACE, and that the answer can be approximated in pseudo-polynomial time. For the hybrid variance, the analogous decision problem is in NP, and a polynomial-time approximating algorithm also exists. For local variance, we show that the decision problem is in NP. Since the overall performance can be traded for stability (and vice versa), we also present algorithms for approximating the associated Pareto curve in all the three cases. Finally, we study a special case of the decision problems, where we require a given expected mean-payoff together with zero variance. Here we show that the problems can be all solved in polynomial time.
AU - Brázdil, Tomáš
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Forejt, Vojtěch
AU - Kučera, Antonín
ID - 2305
T2 - 28th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium
TI - Trading performance for stability in Markov decision processes
ER -
TY - BOOK
AB - Das Buch ist sowohl eine Einführung in die Themen Linked Data, Open Data und Open Linked Data als es auch den konkreten Bezug auf Bibliotheken behandelt. Hierzu werden konkrete Anwendungsprojekte beschrieben. Der Band wendet sich dabei sowohl an Personen aus der Bibliothekspraxis als auch an Personen aus dem Bibliotheksmanagement, die noch nicht mit dem Thema vertraut sind.
AU - Danowski, Patrick
AU - Pohl, Adrian
ID - 2306
SN - 2191-3587
TI - (Open) Linked Data in Bibliotheken
VL - 50
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define the model-measuring problem: given a model M and specification φ, what is the maximal distance ρ such that all models M′ within distance ρ from M satisfy (or violate) φ. The model measuring problem presupposes a distance function on models. We concentrate on automatic distance functions, which are defined by weighted automata. The model-measuring problem subsumes several generalizations of the classical model-checking problem, in particular, quantitative model-checking problems that measure the degree of satisfaction of a specification, and robustness problems that measure how much a model can be perturbed without violating the specification. We show that for automatic distance functions, and ω-regular linear-time and branching-time specifications, the model-measuring problem can be solved. We use automata-theoretic model-checking methods for model measuring, replacing the emptiness question for standard word and tree automata by the optimal-weight question for the weighted versions of these automata. We consider weighted automata that accumulate weights by maximizing, summing, discounting, and limit averaging. We give several examples of using the model-measuring problem to compute various notions of robustness and quantitative satisfaction for temporal specifications.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 2327
TI - From model checking to model measuring
VL - 8052
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Linearizability of concurrent data structures is usually proved by monolithic simulation arguments relying on identifying the so-called linearization points. Regrettably, such proofs, whether manual or automatic, are often complicated and scale poorly to advanced non-blocking concurrency patterns, such as helping and optimistic updates.
In response, we propose a more modular way of checking linearizability of concurrent queue algorithms that does not involve identifying linearization points. We reduce the task of proving linearizability with respect to the queue specification to establishing four basic properties, each of which can be proved independently by simpler arguments. As a demonstration of our approach, we verify the Herlihy and Wing queue, an algorithm that is challenging to verify by a simulation proof.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Sezgin, Ali
AU - Vafeiadis, Viktor
ID - 2328
TI - Aspect-oriented linearizability proofs
VL - 8052
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Two-player games on graphs are central in many problems in formal verification and program analysis such as synthesis and verification of open systems. In this work, we consider both finite-state game graphs, and recursive game graphs (or pushdown game graphs) that model the control flow of sequential programs with recursion. The objectives we study are multidimensional mean-payoff objectives, where the goal of player 1 is to ensure that the mean-payoff is non-negative in all dimensions. In pushdown games two types of strategies are relevant: (1) global strategies, that depend on the entire global history; and (2) modular strategies, that have only local memory and thus do not depend on the context of invocation. Our main contributions are as follows: (1) We show that finite-state multidimensional mean-payoff games can be solved in polynomial time if the number of dimensions and the maximal absolute value of the weights are fixed; whereas if the number of dimensions is arbitrary, then the problem is known to be coNP-complete. (2) We show that pushdown graphs with multidimensional mean-payoff objectives can be solved in polynomial time. For both (1) and (2) our algorithms are based on hyperplane separation technique. (3) For pushdown games under global strategies both one and multidimensional mean-payoff objectives problems are known to be undecidable, and we show that under modular strategies the multidimensional problem is also undecidable; under modular strategies the one-dimensional problem is NP-complete. We show that if the number of modules, the number of exits, and the maximal absolute value of the weights are fixed, then pushdown games under modular strategies with one-dimensional mean-payoff objectives can be solved in polynomial time, and if either the number of exits or the number of modules is unbounded, then the problem is NP-hard. (4) Finally we show that a fixed parameter tractable algorithm for finite-state multidimensional mean-payoff games or pushdown games under modular strategies with one-dimensional mean-payoff objectives would imply the fixed parameter tractability of parity games.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Velner, Yaron
ID - 2329
TI - Hyperplane separation technique for multidimensional mean-payoff games
VL - 8052
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Here, we describe a novel virulent bacteriophage that infects Bacillus weihenstephanensis, isolated from soil in Austria. It is the first phage to be discovered that infects this species. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of this podovirus.
AU - Fernandes Redondo, Rodrigo A
AU - Kupczok, Anne
AU - Stift, Gertraud
AU - Bollback, Jonathan P
ID - 2410
IS - 3
JF - Genome Announcements
TI - Complete genome sequence of the novel phage MG-B1 infecting bacillus weihenstephanensis
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: The CRISPR/Cas system is known to act as an adaptive and heritable immune system in Eubacteria and Archaea. Immunity is encoded in an array of spacer sequences. Each spacer can provide specific immunity to invasive elements that carry the same or a similar sequence. Even in closely related strains, spacer content is very dynamic and evolves quickly. Standard models of nucleotide evolutioncannot be applied to quantify its rate of change since processes other than single nucleotide changes determine its evolution.Methods We present probabilistic models that are specific for spacer content evolution. They account for the different processes of insertion and deletion. Insertions can be constrained to occur on one end only or are allowed to occur throughout the array. One deletion event can affect one spacer or a whole fragment of adjacent spacers. Parameters of the underlying models are estimated for a pair of arrays by maximum likelihood using explicit ancestor enumeration.Results Simulations show that parameters are well estimated on average under the models presented here. There is a bias in the rate estimation when including fragment deletions. The models also estimate times between pairs of strains. But with increasing time, spacer overlap goes to zero, and thus there is an upper bound on the distance that can be estimated. Spacer content similarities are displayed in a distance based phylogeny using the estimated times.We use the presented models to analyze different Yersinia pestis data sets and find that the results among them are largely congruent. The models also capture the variation in diversity of spacers among the data sets. A comparison of spacer-based phylogenies and Cas gene phylogenies shows that they resolve very different time scales for this data set.Conclusions The simulations and data analyses show that the presented models are useful for quantifying spacer content evolution and for displaying spacer content similarities of closely related strains in a phylogeny. This allows for comparisons of different CRISPR arrays or for comparisons between CRISPR arrays and nucleotide substitution rates.
AU - Kupczok, Anne
AU - Bollback, Jonathan P
ID - 2412
IS - 1
JF - BMC Evolutionary Biology
TI - Probabilistic models for CRISPR spacer content evolution
VL - 13
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider two core algorithmic problems for probabilistic verification: the maximal end-component decomposition and the almost-sure reachability set computation for Markov decision processes (MDPs). For MDPs with treewidth k, we present two improved static algorithms for both the problems that run in time O(n·k 2.38·2k ) and O(m·logn· k), respectively, where n is the number of states and m is the number of edges, significantly improving the previous known O(n·k·√n· k) bound for low treewidth. We also present decremental algorithms for both problems for MDPs with constant treewidth that run in amortized logarithmic time, which is a huge improvement over the previously known algorithms that require amortized linear time.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ła̧Cki, Jakub
ID - 2444
TI - Faster algorithms for Markov decision processes with low treewidth
VL - 8044
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We develop program synthesis techniques that can help programmers fix concurrency-related bugs. We make two new contributions to synthesis for concurrency, the first improving the efficiency of the synthesized code, and the second improving the efficiency of the synthesis procedure itself. The first contribution is to have the synthesis procedure explore a variety of (sequential) semantics-preserving program transformations. Classically, only one such transformation has been considered, namely, the insertion of synchronization primitives (such as locks). Based on common manual bug-fixing techniques used by Linux device-driver developers, we explore additional, more efficient transformations, such as the reordering of independent instructions. The second contribution is to speed up the counterexample-guided removal of concurrency bugs within the synthesis procedure by considering partial-order traces (instead of linear traces) as counterexamples. A partial-order error trace represents a set of linear (interleaved) traces of a concurrent program all of which lead to the same error. By eliminating a partial-order error trace, we eliminate in a single iteration of the synthesis procedure all linearizations of the partial-order trace. We evaluated our techniques on several simplified examples of real concurrency bugs that occurred in Linux device drivers.
AU - Cerny, Pavol
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Radhakrishna, Arjun
AU - Ryzhyk, Leonid
AU - Tarrach, Thorsten
ID - 2445
TI - Efficient synthesis for concurrency by semantics-preserving transformations
VL - 8044
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The model-checking problem for probabilistic systems crucially relies on the translation of LTL to deterministic Rabin automata (DRW). Our recent Safraless translation [KE12, GKE12] for the LTL(F,G) fragment produces smaller automata as compared to the traditional approach. In this work, instead of DRW we consider deterministic automata with acceptance condition given as disjunction of generalized Rabin pairs (DGRW). The Safraless translation of LTL(F,G) formulas to DGRW results in smaller automata as compared to DRW. We present algorithms for probabilistic model-checking as well as game solving for DGRW conditions. Our new algorithms lead to improvement both in terms of theoretical bounds as well as practical evaluation. We compare PRISM with and without our new translation, and show that the new translation leads to significant improvements.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Gaiser, Andreas
AU - Kretinsky, Jan
ID - 2446
TI - Automata with generalized Rabin pairs for probabilistic model checking and LTL synthesis
VL - 8044
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Separation logic (SL) has gained widespread popularity because of its ability to succinctly express complex invariants of a program’s heap configurations. Several specialized provers have been developed for decidable SL fragments. However, these provers cannot be easily extended or combined with solvers for other theories that are important in program verification, e.g., linear arithmetic. In this paper, we present a reduction of decidable SL fragments to a decidable first-order theory that fits well into the satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) framework. We show how to use this reduction to automate satisfiability, entailment, frame inference, and abduction problems for separation logic using SMT solvers. Our approach provides a simple method of integrating separation logic into existing verification tools that provide SMT backends, and an elegant way of combining SL fragments with other decidable first-order theories. We implemented this approach in a verification tool and applied it to heap-manipulating programs whose verification involves reasoning in theory combinations.
AU - Piskac, Ruzica
AU - Wies, Thomas
AU - Zufferey, Damien
ID - 2447
TI - Automating separation logic using SMT
VL - 8044
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cell-to-cell directional flow of the phytohormone auxin is primarily established by polar localization of the PIN auxin transporters, a process tightly regulated at multiple levels by auxin itself. We recently reported that, in the context of strong auxin flows, activity of the vacuolar ZIFL1.1 transporter is required for fine-tuning of polar auxin transport rates in the Arabidopsis root. In particular, ZIFL1.1 function protects plasma-membrane stability of the PIN2 carrier in epidermal root tip cells under conditions normally triggering PIN2 degradation. Here, we show that ZIFL1.1 activity at the root tip also promotes PIN1 plasma-membrane abundance in central cylinder cells, thus supporting the notion that ZIFL1.1 acts as a general positive modulator of polar auxin transport in roots.
AU - Remy, Estelle
AU - Baster, Pawel
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Duque, Paula
ID - 2448
IS - 10
JF - Plant Signaling & Behavior
TI - ZIFL1.1 transporter modulates polar auxin transport by stabilizing membrane abundance of multiple PINs in Arabidopsis root tip
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a new method for efficiently simulating liquid with extreme amounts of spatial adaptivity. Our method combines several key components to drastically speed up the simulation of large-scale fluid phenomena: We leverage an alternative Eulerian tetrahedral mesh discretization to significantly reduce the complexity of the pressure solve while increasing the robustness with respect to element quality and removing the possibility of locking. Next, we enable subtle free-surface phenomena by deriving novel second-order boundary conditions consistent with our discretization. We couple this discretization with a spatially adaptive Fluid-Implicit Particle (FLIP) method, enabling efficient, robust, minimally-dissipative simulations that can undergo sharp changes in spatial resolution while minimizing artifacts. Along the way, we provide a new method for generating a smooth and detailed surface from a set of particles with variable sizes. Finally, we explore several new sizing functions for determining spatially adaptive simulation resolutions, and we show how to couple them to our simulator. We combine each of these elements to produce a simulation algorithm that is capable of creating animations at high maximum resolutions while avoiding common pitfalls like inaccurate boundary conditions and inefficient computation.
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 2466
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Highly adaptive liquid simulations on tetrahedral meshes
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents a method for computing topology changes for triangle meshes in an interactive geometric modeling environment. Most triangle meshes in practice do not exhibit desirable geometric properties, so we develop a solution that is independent of standard assumptions and robust to geometric errors. Specifically, we provide the first method for topology change applicable to arbitrary non-solid, non-manifold, non-closed, self-intersecting surfaces. We prove that this new method for topology change produces the expected conventional results when applied to solid (closed, manifold, non-self-intersecting) surfaces---that is, we prove a backwards-compatibility property relative to prior work. Beyond solid surfaces, we present empirical evidence that our method remains tolerant to a variety of surface aberrations through the incorporation of a novel error correction scheme. Finally, we demonstrate how topology change applied to non-solid objects enables wholly new and useful behaviors.
AU - Bernstein, Gilbert
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 2467
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Putting holes in holey geometry: Topology change for arbitrary surfaces
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Our work concerns the combination of an Eulerian liquid simulation with a high-resolution surface tracker (e.g. the level set method or a Lagrangian triangle mesh). The naive application of a high-resolution surface tracker to a low-resolution velocity field can produce many visually disturbing physical and topological artifacts that limit their use in practice. We address these problems by defining an error function which compares the current state of the surface tracker to the set of physically valid surface states. By reducing this error with a gradient descent technique, we introduce a novel physics-based surface fairing method. Similarly, by treating this error function as a potential energy, we derive a new surface correction force that mimics the vortex sheet equations. We demonstrate our results with both level set and mesh-based surface trackers.
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 2468
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Liquid surface tracking with error compensation
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cadherins are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell–cell adhesion in animals. By regulating contact formation and stability, cadherins play a crucial role in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Here, we review the three major unctions of cadherins in cell–cell contact formation and stability. Two of those functions lead to a decrease in interfacial ension at the forming cell–cell contact, thereby promoting contact expansion — first, by providing adhesion tension that lowers interfacial tension at the cell–cell contact, and second, by signaling to the actomyosin cytoskeleton in order to reduce cortex tension and thus interfacial tension at the contact. The third function of cadherins in cell–cell contact formation is to stabilize the contact by resisting mechanical forces that pull on the contact.
AU - Maître, Jean-Léon
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 2469
IS - 14
JF - Current Biology
TI - Three functions of cadherins in cell adhesion
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background:Auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) is a putative auxin receptor and its function is indispensable for plant growth and development. ABP1 has been shown to be involved in auxin-dependent regulation of cell division and expansion, in plasma-membrane-related processes such as changes in transmembrane potential, and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the ABP1-regulated downstream pathway remains elusive.Methodology/Principal Findings:Using auxin transport assays and quantitative analysis of cellular morphology we show that ABP1 regulates auxin efflux from tobacco BY-2 cells. The overexpression of ABP1can counterbalance increased auxin efflux and auxin starvation phenotypes caused by the overexpression of PIN auxin efflux carrier. Relevant mechanism involves the ABP1-controlled vesicle trafficking processes, including positive regulation of endocytosis of PIN auxin efflux carriers, as indicated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and pharmacological manipulations.Conclusions/Significance:The findings indicate the involvement of ABP1 in control of rate of auxin transport across plasma membrane emphasizing the role of ABP1 in regulation of PIN activity at the plasma membrane, and highlighting the relevance of ABP1 for the formation of developmentally important, PIN-dependent auxin gradients.
AU - Čovanová, Milada
AU - Sauer, Michael
AU - Rychtář, Jan
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Petrášek, Jan
AU - Zažímalová, Eva
ID - 2470
IS - 7
JF - PLoS One
TI - Overexpression of the auxin binding PROTEIN1 modulates PIN-dependent auxin transport in tobacco cells
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The impact of disulfide bonds on protein stability goes beyond simple equilibrium thermodynamics effects associated with the conformational entropy of the unfolded state. Indeed, disulfide crosslinks may play a role in the prevention of dysfunctional association and strongly affect the rates of irreversible enzyme inactivation, highly relevant in biotechnological applications. While these kinetic-stability effects remain poorly understood, by analogy with proposed mechanisms for processes of protein aggregation and fibrillogenesis, we propose that they may be determined by the properties of sparsely-populated, partially-unfolded intermediates. Here we report the successful design, on the basis of high temperature molecular-dynamics simulations, of six thermodynamically and kinetically stabilized variants of phytase from Citrobacter braakii (a biotechnologically important enzyme) with one, two or three engineered disulfides. Activity measurements and 3D crystal structure determination demonstrate that the engineered crosslinks do not cause dramatic alterations in the native structure. The inactivation kinetics for all the variants displays a strongly non-Arrhenius temperature dependence, with the time-scale for the irreversible denaturation process reaching a minimum at a given temperature within the range of the denaturation transition. We show this striking feature to be a signature of a key role played by a partially unfolded, intermediate state/ensemble. Energetic and mutational analyses confirm that the intermediate is highly unfolded (akin to a proposed critical intermediate in the misfolding of the prion protein), a result that explains the observed kinetic stabilization. Our results provide a rationale for the kinetic-stability consequences of disulfide-crosslink engineering and an experimental methodology to arrive at energetic/structural descriptions of the sparsely populated and elusive intermediates that play key roles in irreversible protein denaturation.
AU - Sanchez Romero, Inmaculada
AU - Ariza, Antonio
AU - Wilson, Keith
AU - Skjøt, Michael
AU - Vind, Jesper
AU - De Maria, Leonardo
AU - Skov, Lars
AU - Sánchez Ruiz, Jose
ID - 2471
IS - 7
JF - PLoS One
TI - Mechanism of protein kinetic stabilization by engineered disulfide crosslinks
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant-specific PIN-formed (PIN) efflux transporters for the plant hormone auxin are required for tissue-specific directional auxin transport and cellular auxin homeostasis. The Arabidopsis PIN protein family has been shown to play important roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, vascular tissue differentiation, root meristem patterning and tropic growth. Here we analyzed roles of the less characterised Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter. PIN6 is auxin-inducible and is expressed during multiple auxin-regulated developmental processes. Loss of pin6 function interfered with primary root growth and lateral root development. Misexpression of PIN6 affected auxin transport and interfered with auxin homeostasis in other growth processes such as shoot apical dominance, lateral root primordia development, adventitious root formation, root hair outgrowth and root waving. These changes in auxin-regulated growth correlated with a reduction in total auxin transport as well as with an altered activity of DR5-GUS auxin response reporter. Overall, the data indicate that PIN6 regulates auxin homeostasis during plant development.
AU - Cazzonelli, Christopher
AU - Vanstraelen, Marleen
AU - Simon, Sibu
AU - Yin, Kuide
AU - Carron Arthur, Ashley
AU - Nisar, Nazia
AU - Tarle, Gauri
AU - Cuttriss, Abby
AU - Searle, Iain
AU - Benková, Eva
AU - Mathesius, Ulrike
AU - Masle, Josette
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Pogson, Barry
ID - 2472
IS - 7
JF - PLoS One
TI - Role of the Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter in auxin homeostasis and auxin-mediated development
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When a mutation with selective advantage s spreads through a panmictic population, it may cause two lineages at a linked locus to coalesce; the probability of coalescence is exp(−2rT), where T∼log(2Ns)/s is the time to fixation, N is the number of haploid individuals, and r is the recombination rate. Population structure delays fixation, and so weakens the effect of a selective sweep. However, favourable alleles spread through a spatially continuous population behind a narrow wavefront; ancestral lineages are confined at the tip of this front, and so coalesce rapidly. In extremely dense populations, coalescence is dominated by rare fluctuations ahead of the front. However, we show that for moderate densities, a simple quasi-deterministic approximation applies: the rate of coalescence within the front is λ∼2g(η)/(ρℓ), where ρ is the population density and is the characteristic scale of the wavefront; g(η) depends only on the strength of random drift, . The net effect of a sweep on coalescence also depends crucially on whether two lineages are ever both within the wavefront at the same time: even in the extreme case when coalescence within the front is instantaneous, the net rate of coalescence may be lower than in a single panmictic population. Sweeps can also have a substantial impact on the rate of gene flow. A single lineage will jump to a new location when it is hit by a sweep, with mean square displacement ; this can be substantial if the species’ range, L, is large, even if the species-wide rate of sweeps per map length, Λ/R, is small. This effect is half as strong in two dimensions. In contrast, the rate of coalescence between lineages, at random locations in space and on the genetic map, is proportional to (c/L)(Λ/R), where c is the wavespeed: thus, on average, one-dimensional structure is likely to reduce coalescence due to sweeps, relative to panmixis. In two dimensions, genes must move along the front before they can coalesce; this process is rapid, being dominated by rare fluctuations. This leads to a dramatically higher rate of coalescence within the wavefront than if lineages simply diffused along the front. Nevertheless, the net rate of coalescence due to a sweep through a two-dimensional population is likely to be lower than it would be with panmixis.
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
AU - Etheridge, Alison
AU - Kelleher, Jerome
AU - Véber, Amandine
ID - 2473
IS - 8
JF - Theoretical Population Biology
TI - Genetic hitch-hiking in spatially extended populations
VL - 87
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Traditional formal methods are based on a Boolean satisfaction notion: a reactive system satisfies, or not, a given specification. We generalize formal methods to also address the quality of systems. As an adequate specification formalism we introduce the linear temporal logic LTL[F]. The satisfaction value of an LTL[F] formula is a number between 0 and 1, describing the quality of the satisfaction. The logic generalizes traditional LTL by augmenting it with a (parameterized) set F of arbitrary functions over the interval [0,1]. For example, F may contain the maximum or minimum between the satisfaction values of subformulas, their product, and their average. The classical decision problems in formal methods, such as satisfiability, model checking, and synthesis, are generalized to search and optimization problems in the quantitative setting. For example, model checking asks for the quality in which a specification is satisfied, and synthesis returns a system satisfying the specification with the highest quality. Reasoning about quality gives rise to other natural questions, like the distance between specifications. We formalize these basic questions and study them for LTL[F]. By extending the automata-theoretic approach for LTL to a setting that takes quality into an account, we are able to solve the above problems and show that reasoning about LTL[F] has roughly the same complexity as reasoning about traditional LTL.
AU - Almagor, Shaull
AU - Boker, Udi
AU - Kupferman, Orna
ID - 2517
IS - Part 2
TI - Formalizing and reasoning about quality
VL - 7966
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A class of valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSPs) is characterised by a valued constraint language, a fixed set of cost functions on a finite domain. An instance of the problem is specified by a sum of cost functions from the language with the goal to minimise the sum. We study which classes of finite-valued languages can be solved exactly by the basic linear programming relaxation (BLP). Thapper and Živný showed [20] that if BLP solves the language then the language admits a binary commutative fractional polymorphism. We prove that the converse is also true. This leads to a necessary and a sufficient condition which can be checked in polynomial time for a given language. In contrast, the previous necessary and sufficient condition due to [20] involved infinitely many inequalities. More recently, Thapper and Živný [21] showed (using, in particular, a technique introduced in this paper) that core languages that do not satisfy our condition are NP-hard. Taken together, these results imply that a finite-valued language can either be solved using Linear Programming or is NP-hard.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
ID - 2518
IS - 1
TI - The power of linear programming for finite-valued CSPs: A constructive characterization
VL - 7965
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We propose a probabilistic model to infer supervised latent variables in
the Hamming space from observed data. Our model allows simultaneous
inference of the number of binary latent variables, and their values. The
latent variables preserve neighbourhood structure of the data in a sense
that objects in the same semantic concept have similar latent values, and
objects in different concepts have dissimilar latent values. We formulate
the supervised infinite latent variable problem based on an intuitive
principle of pulling objects together if they are of the same type, and
pushing them apart if they are not. We then combine this principle with a
flexible Indian Buffet Process prior on the latent variables. We show that
the inferred supervised latent variables can be directly used to perform a
nearest neighbour search for the purpose of retrieval. We introduce a new
application of dynamically extending hash codes, and show how to
effectively couple the structure of the hash codes with continuously
growing structure of the neighbourhood preserving infinite latent feature
space.
AU - Quadrianto, Novi
AU - Sharmanska, Viktoriia
AU - Knowles, David
AU - Ghahramani, Zoubin
ID - 2520
SN - 9780974903996
T2 - Proceedings of the 29th conference uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
TI - The supervised IBP: Neighbourhood preserving infinite latent feature models
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider non-interacting particles subject to a fixed external potential V and a self-generated magnetic field B. The total energy includes the field energy β∫B2 and we minimize over all particle states and magnetic fields. In the case of spin-1/2 particles this minimization leads to the coupled Maxwell-Pauli system. The parameter β tunes the coupling strength between the field and the particles and it effectively determines the strength of the field. We investigate the stability and the semiclassical asymptotics, h→0, of the total ground state energy E(β,h,V). The relevant parameter measuring the field strength in the semiclassical limit is κ=βh. We are not able to give the exact leading order semiclassical asymptotics uniformly in κ or even for fixed κ. We do however give upper and lower bounds on E with almost matching dependence on κ. In the simultaneous limit h→0 and κ→∞ we show that the standard non-magnetic Weyl asymptotics holds. The same result also holds for the spinless case, i.e. where the Pauli operator is replaced by the Schrödinger operator.
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Fournais, Søren
AU - Solovej, Jan
ID - 2698
IS - 6
JF - Journal of the European Mathematical Society
TI - Stability and semiclassics in self-generated fields
VL - 15
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Even though both population and quantitative genetics, and evolutionary computation, deal with the same questions, they have developed largely independently of each other. I review key results from each field, emphasising those that apply independently of the (usually unknown) relation between genotype and phenotype. The infinitesimal model provides a simple framework for predicting the response of complex traits to selection, which in biology has proved remarkably successful. This allows one to choose the schedule of population sizes and selection intensities that will maximise the response to selection, given that the total number of individuals realised, C = ∑t Nt, is constrained. This argument shows that for an additive trait (i.e., determined by the sum of effects of the genes), the optimum population size and the maximum possible response (i.e., the total change in trait mean) are both proportional to √C.
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
AU - Paixao, Tiago
ID - 2718
T2 - Proceedings of the 15th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation
TI - Can quantitative and population genetics help us understand evolutionary computation?
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Knowledge of the rate and fitness effects of mutations is essential for understanding the process of evolution. Mutations are inherently difficult to study because they are rare and are frequently eliminated by natural selection. In the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, mutations can accumulate in the germline genome without being exposed to selection. We have conducted a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in this species. Assuming that all mutations are deleterious and have the same effect, we estimate that the deleterious mutation rate per haploid germline genome per generation is U = 0.0047 (95% credible interval: 0.0015, 0.0125), and that germline mutations decrease fitness by s = 11% when expressed in a homozygous state (95% CI: 4.4%, 27%). We also estimate that deleterious mutations are partially recessive on average (h = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.022, 0.62) and that the rate of lethal mutations is <10% of the deleterious mutation rate. Comparisons between the observed evolutionary responses in the germline and somatic genomes and the results from individual-based simulations of MA suggest that the two genomes have similar mutational parameters. These are the first estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and fitness effects from the eukaryotic supergroup Chromalveolata and are within the range of those of other eukaryotes.
AU - Long, Hongan
AU - Paixao, Tiago
AU - Azevedo, Ricardo
AU - Zufall, Rebecca
ID - 2720
IS - 2
JF - Genetics
TI - Accumulation of spontaneous mutations in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila
VL - 195
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider random n×n matrices of the form (XX*+YY*)^{-1/2}YY*(XX*+YY*)^{-1/2}, where X and Y have independent entries with zero mean and variance one. These matrices are the natural generalization of the Gaussian case, which are known as MANOVA matrices and which have joint eigenvalue density given by the third classical ensemble, the Jacobi ensemble. We show that, away from the spectral edge, the eigenvalue density converges to the limiting density of the Jacobi ensemble even on the shortest possible scales of order 1/n (up to log n factors). This result is the analogue of the local Wigner semicircle law and the local Marchenko-Pastur law for general MANOVA matrices.
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Farrell, Brendan
ID - 2782
IS - 6
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
TI - Local eigenvalue density for general MANOVA matrices
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The fact that a sum of isotropic Gaussian kernels can have more modes than kernels is surprising. Extra (ghost) modes do not exist in ℝ1 and are generally not well studied in higher dimensions. We study a configuration of n+1 Gaussian kernels for which there are exactly n+2 modes. We show that all modes lie on a finite set of lines, which we call axes, and study the restriction of the Gaussian mixture to these axes in order to discover that there are an exponential number of critical points in this configuration. Although the existence of ghost modes remained unknown due to the difficulty of finding examples in ℝ2, we show that the resilience of ghost modes grows like the square root of the dimension. In addition, we exhibit finite configurations of isotropic Gaussian kernels with superlinearly many modes.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Fasy, Brittany Terese
AU - Rote, Günter
ID - 2815
IS - 4
JF - Discrete & Computational Geometry
SN - 0179-5376
TI - Add isotropic Gaussian kernels at own risk: More and more resilient modes in higher dimensions
VL - 49
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The mode of action of auxin is based on its non-uniform distribution within tissues and organs. Despite the wide use of several auxin analogues in research and agriculture, little is known about the specificity of different auxin-related transport and signalling processes towards these compounds. Using seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana and suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum (BY-2), the physiological activity of several auxin analogues was investigated, together with their capacity to induce auxin-dependent gene expression, to inhibit endocytosis and to be transported across the plasma membrane. This study shows that the specificity criteria for different auxin-related processes vary widely. Notably, the special behaviour of some synthetic auxin analogues suggests that they might be useful tools in investigations of the molecular mechanism of auxin action. Thus, due to their differential stimulatory effects on DR5 expression, indole-3-propionic (IPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic (2,4,5-T) acids can serve in studies of TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1/AUXIN SIGNALLING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB)-mediated auxin signalling, and 5-fluoroindole-3-acetic acid (5-F-IAA) can help to discriminate between transcriptional and non-transcriptional pathways of auxin signalling. The results demonstrate that the major determinants for the auxin-like physiological potential of a particular compound are very complex and involve its chemical and metabolic stability, its ability to distribute in tissues in a polar manner and its activity towards auxin signalling machinery.
AU - Simon, Sibu
AU - Kubeš, Martin
AU - Baster, Pawel
AU - Robert, Stéphanie
AU - Dobrev, Petre
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Petrášek, Jan
AU - Zažímalová, Eva
ID - 2443
IS - 4
JF - New Phytologist
TI - Defining the selectivity of processes along the auxin response chain: A study using auxin analogues
VL - 200
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Directional guidance of cells via gradients of chemokines is considered crucial for embryonic development, cancer dissemination, and immune responses. Nevertheless, the concept still lacks direct experimental confirmation in vivo. Here, we identify endogenous gradients of the chemokine CCL21 within mouse skin and show that they guide dendritic cells toward lymphatic vessels. Quantitative imaging reveals depots of CCL21 within lymphatic endothelial cells and steeply decaying gradients within the perilymphatic interstitium. These gradients match the migratory patterns of the dendritic cells, which directionally approach vessels from a distance of up to 90-micrometers. Interstitial CCL21 is immobilized to heparan sulfates, and its experimental delocalization or swamping the endogenous gradients abolishes directed migration. These findings functionally establish the concept of haptotaxis, directed migration along immobilized gradients, in tissues.
AU - Weber, Michele
AU - Hauschild, Robert
AU - Schwarz, Jan
AU - Moussion, Christine
AU - De Vries, Ingrid
AU - Legler, Daniel
AU - Luther, Sanjiv
AU - Bollenbach, Mark Tobias
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 2839
IS - 6117
JF - Science
TI - Interstitial dendritic cell guidance by haptotactic chemokine gradients
VL - 339
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) with Büchi (liveness) objectives. We consider the problem of computing the set of almost-sure winning states from where the objective can be ensured with probability 1. Our contributions are as follows: First, we present the first subquadratic symbolic algorithm to compute the almost-sure winning set for MDPs with Büchi objectives; our algorithm takes O(n · √ m) symbolic steps as compared to the previous known algorithm that takes O(n 2) symbolic steps, where n is the number of states and m is the number of edges of the MDP. In practice MDPs have constant out-degree, and then our symbolic algorithm takes O(n · √ n) symbolic steps, as compared to the previous known O(n 2) symbolic steps algorithm. Second, we present a new algorithm, namely win-lose algorithm, with the following two properties: (a) the algorithm iteratively computes subsets of the almost-sure winning set and its complement, as compared to all previous algorithms that discover the almost-sure winning set upon termination; and (b) requires O(n · √ K) symbolic steps, where K is the maximal number of edges of strongly connected components (scc's) of the MDP. The win-lose algorithm requires symbolic computation of scc's. Third, we improve the algorithm for symbolic scc computation; the previous known algorithm takes linear symbolic steps, and our new algorithm improves the constants associated with the linear number of steps. In the worst case the previous known algorithm takes 5×n symbolic steps, whereas our new algorithm takes 4×n symbolic steps.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika H
AU - Joglekar, Manas
AU - Shah, Nisarg
ID - 2831
IS - 3
JF - Formal Methods in System Design
TI - Symbolic algorithms for qualitative analysis of Markov decision processes with Büchi objectives
VL - 42
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results: We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal-originally described for honeybees as "hygienic behaviour"-is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies.
AU - Tragust, Simon
AU - Ugelvig, Line V
AU - Chapuisat, Michel
AU - Heinze, Jürgen
AU - Cremer, Sylvia
ID - 2284
IS - 1
JF - BMC Evolutionary Biology
TI - Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies
VL - 13
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Redundancies and correlations in the responses of sensory neurons may seem to waste neural resources, but they can also carry cues about structured stimuli and may help the brain to correct for response errors. To investigate the effect of stimulus structure on redundancy in retina, we measured simultaneous responses from populations of retinal ganglion cells presented with natural and artificial stimuli that varied greatly in correlation structure; these stimuli and recordings are publicly available online. Responding to spatio-temporally structured stimuli such as natural movies, pairs of ganglion cells were modestly more correlated than in response to white noise checkerboards, but they were much less correlated than predicted by a non-adapting functional model of retinal response. Meanwhile, responding to stimuli with purely spatial correlations, pairs of ganglion cells showed increased correlations consistent with a static, non-adapting receptive field and nonlinearity. We found that in response to spatio-temporally correlated stimuli, ganglion cells had faster temporal kernels and tended to have stronger surrounds. These properties of individual cells, along with gain changes that opposed changes in effective contrast at the ganglion cell input, largely explained the pattern of pairwise correlations across stimuli where receptive field measurements were possible.
AU - Simmons, Kristina
AU - Prentice, Jason
AU - Tkacik, Gasper
AU - Homann, Jan
AU - Yee, Heather
AU - Palmer, Stephanie
AU - Nelson, Philip
AU - Balasubramanian, Vijay
ID - 2277
IS - 12
JF - PLoS Computational Biology
TI - Transformation of stimulus correlations by the retina
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - High relatedness among interacting individuals has generally been considered a precondition for the evolution of altruism. However, kin-selection theory also predicts the evolution of altruism when relatedness is low, as long as the cost of the altruistic act is minor compared with its benefit. Here, we demonstrate evidence for a low-cost altruistic act in bacteria. We investigated Escherichia coli responding to the attack of an obligately lytic phage by committing suicide in order to prevent parasite transmission to nearby relatives. We found that bacterial suicide provides large benefits to survivors at marginal costs to committers. The cost of suicide was low, because infected cells are moribund, rapidly dying upon phage infection, such that no more opportunity for reproduction remains. As a consequence of its marginal cost, host suicide was selectively favoured even when relatedness between committers and survivors approached zero. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that low-cost suicide can evolve with ease, represents an effective host-defence strategy, and seems to be widespread among microbes. Moreover, low-cost suicide might also occur in higher organisms as exemplified by infected social insect workers leaving the colony to die in isolation.
AU - Refardt, Dominik
AU - Bergmiller, Tobias
AU - Kümmerli, Rolf
ID - 2853
IS - 1759
JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences
TI - Altruism can evolve when relatedness is low: Evidence from bacteria committing suicide upon phage infection
VL - 280
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - High relatedness among interacting individuals has generally been considered a precondition for the evolution of altruism. However, kin-selection theory also predicts the evolution of altruism when relatedness is low, as long as the cost of the altruistic act is minor compared to its benefit. Here, we demonstrate evidence for a low-cost altruistic act in bacteria. We investigated Escherichia coli responding to the attack of an obligately lytic phage by committing suicide in order to prevent parasite transmission to nearby relatives. We found that bacterial suicide provides large benefits to survivors at marginal costs to committers. The cost of suicide was low because infected cells are moribund, rapidly dying upon phage infection, such that no more opportunity for reproduction remains. As a consequence of its marginal cost, host suicide was selectively favoured even when relatedness between committers and survivors approached zero. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that low-cost suicide can evolve with ease, represents an effective host-defence strategy, and seems to be widespread among microbes. Moreover, low-cost suicide might also occur in higher organisms as exemplified by infected social insect workers leaving the colony to die in isolation.
AU - Refardt, Dominik
AU - Bergmiller, Tobias
AU - Kümmerli, Rolf
ID - 9751
TI - Data from: Altruism can evolve when relatedness is low: evidence from bacteria committing suicide upon phage infection
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Short-read sequencing technologies have in principle made it feasible to draw detailed inferences about the recent history of any organism. In practice, however, this remains challenging due to the difficulty of genome assembly in most organisms and the lack of statistical methods powerful enough to discriminate among recent, non-equilibrium histories. We address both the assembly and inference challenges. We develop a bioinformatic pipeline for generating outgroup-rooted alignments of orthologous sequence blocks from de novo low-coverage short-read data for a small number of genomes, and show how such sequence blocks can be used to fit explicit models of population divergence and admixture in a likelihood framework. To illustrate our approach, we reconstruct the Pleistocene history of an oak-feeding insect (the oak gallwasp Biorhiza pallida) which, in common with many other taxa, was restricted during Pleistocene ice ages to a longitudinal series of southern refugia spanning theWestern Palaearctic. Our analysis of sequence blocks sampled from a single genome from each of three major glacial refugia reveals support for an unexpected history dominated by recent admixture. Despite the fact that 80% of the genome is affected by admixture during the last glacial cycle, we are able to infer the deeper divergence history of these populations. These inferences are robust to variation in block length, mutation model, and the sampling location of individual genomes within refugia. This combination of de novo assembly and numerical likelihood calculation provides a powerful framework for estimating recent population history that can be applied to any organism without the need for prior genetic resources.
AU - Hearn, Jack
AU - Stone, Graham
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
AU - Lohse, Konrad
AU - Bunnefeld, Lynsey
ID - 9754
TI - Data from: Likelihood-based inference of population history from low coverage de novo genome assemblies
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study evolutionary game theory in a setting where individuals learn from each other. We extend the traditional approach by assuming that a population contains individuals with different learning abilities. In particular, we explore the situation where individuals have different search spaces, when attempting to learn the strategies of others. The search space of an individual specifies the set of strategies learnable by that individual. The search space is genetically given and does not change under social evolutionary dynamics. We introduce a general framework and study a specific example in the context of direct reciprocity. For this example, we obtain the counter intuitive result that cooperation can only evolve for intermediate benefit-to-cost ratios, while small and large benefit-to-cost ratios favor defection. Our paper is a step toward making a connection between computational learning theory and evolutionary game dynamics.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Zufferey, Damien
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 2848
JF - Journal of Theoretical Biology
TI - Evolutionary game dynamics in populations with different learners
VL - 301
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Strelkova, Nataliya
ID - 2849
IS - 6
JF - Russian Mathematical Surveys
TI - On the configuration space of Steiner minimal trees
VL - 67
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Quantitative automata are nondeterministic finite automata with edge weights. They value a
run by some function from the sequence of visited weights to the reals, and value a word by its
minimal/maximal run. They generalize boolean automata, and have gained much attention in
recent years. Unfortunately, important automaton classes, such as sum, discounted-sum, and
limit-average automata, cannot be determinized. Yet, the quantitative setting provides the potential
of approximate determinization. We define approximate determinization with respect to
a distance function, and investigate this potential.
We show that sum automata cannot be determinized approximately with respect to any
distance function. However, restricting to nonnegative weights allows for approximate determinization
with respect to some distance functions.
Discounted-sum automata allow for approximate determinization, as the influence of a word’s
suffix is decaying. However, the naive approach, of unfolding the automaton computations up
to a sufficient level, is shown to be doubly exponential in the discount factor. We provide an
alternative construction that is singly exponential in the discount factor, in the precision, and
in the number of states. We prove matching lower bounds, showing exponential dependency on
each of these three parameters.
Average and limit-average automata are shown to prohibit approximate determinization with
respect to any distance function, and this is the case even for two weights, 0 and 1.
AU - Boker, Udi
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 2891
T2 - Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
TI - Approximate determinization of quantitative automata
VL - 18
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In order to enjoy a digital version of the Jordan Curve Theorem, it is common to use the closed topology for the foreground and the open topology for the background of a 2-dimensional binary image. In this paper, we introduce a single topology that enjoys this theorem for all thresholds decomposing a real-valued image into foreground and background. This topology is easy to construct and it generalizes to n-dimensional images.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Symonova, Olga
ID - 2903
TI - The adaptive topology of a digital image
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Generalized van der Corput sequences are onedimensional, infinite sequences in the unit interval. They are generated from permutations in integer base b and are the building blocks of the multi-dimensional Halton sequences. Motivated by recent progress of Atanassov on the uniform distribution behavior of Halton sequences, we study, among others, permutations of the form P(i) = ai (mod b) for coprime integers a and b. We show that multipliers a that either divide b - 1 or b + 1 generate van der Corput sequences with weak distribution properties. We give explicit lower bounds for the asymptotic distribution behavior of these sequences and relate them to sequences generated from the identity permutation in smaller bases, which are, due to Faure, the weakest distributed generalized van der Corput sequences.
AU - Pausinger, Florian
ID - 2904
IS - 3
JF - Journal de Theorie des Nombres des Bordeaux
SN - 2118-8572
TI - Weak multipliers for generalized van der Corput sequences
VL - 24
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The classical (boolean) notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a quantitative measure for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intu- itively, tolerating errors (while counting them) in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.
AU - Cerny, Pavol
AU - Chmelik, Martin
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Radhakrishna, Arjun
ID - 2916
T2 - Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science
TI - Interface Simulation Distances
VL - 96
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - This paper addresses the problem of approximate MAP-MRF inference in general graphical models. Following [36], we consider a family of linear programming relaxations of the problem where each relaxation is specified by a set of nested pairs of factors for which the marginalization constraint needs to be enforced. We develop a generalization of the TRW-S algorithm [9] for this problem, where we use a decomposition into junction chains, monotonic w.r.t. some ordering on the nodes. This generalizes the monotonic chains in [9] in a natural way. We also show how to deal with nested factors in an efficient way. Experiments show an improvement over min-sum diffusion, MPLP and subgradient ascent algorithms on a number of computer vision and natural language processing problems.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Schoenemann, Thomas
ID - 2928
T2 - arXiv
TI - Generalized sequential tree-reweighted message passing
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this paper we investigate k-submodular functions. This natural family of discrete functions includes submodular and bisubmodular functions as the special cases k = 1 and k = 2 respectively.
In particular we generalize the known Min-Max-Theorem for submodular and bisubmodular functions. This theorem asserts that the minimum of the (bi)submodular function can be found by solving a maximization problem over a (bi)submodular polyhedron. We define a k-submodular polyhedron, prove a Min-Max-Theorem for k-submodular functions, and give a greedy algorithm to construct the vertices of the polyhedron.
AU - Huber, Anna
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
ID - 2930
TI - Towards minimizing k-submodular functions
VL - 7422
ER -