Quantitative monitoring of software
We present a formal framework for the online black-box monitoring of software using monitors with quantitative verdict functions. Quantitative verdict functions have several advantages. First, quantitative monitors can be approximate, i.e., the value of the verdict function does not need to correspond exactly to the value of the property under observation. Second, quantitative monitors can be quantified universally, i.e., for every possible observed behavior, the monitor tries to make the best effort to estimate the value of the property under observation. Third, quantitative monitors can watch boolean as well as quantitative properties, such as average response time. Fourth, quantitative monitors can use non-finite-state resources, such as counters. As a consequence, quantitative monitors can be compared according to how many resources they use (e.g., the number of counters) and how precisely they approximate the property under observation. This allows for a rich spectrum of cost-precision trade-offs in monitoring software.
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Springer Nature