Szabo, B; Mangione, R; Rath, M; Pašukonis, A; Reber, SA; Oh, JinookISTA; Ringler, M; Ringler, E
For animals to survive until reproduction, it is crucial that juveniles successfully detect potential predators and respond with appropriate behavior. The recognition of cues originating from predators can be innate or learned. Cues of various modalities might be used alone or in multi-modal combinations to detect and distinguish predators but studies investigating multi-modal integration in predator avoidance are scarce. Here, we used wild, naive tadpoles of the Neotropical poison frog Allobates femoralis ( Boulenger, 1884) to test their reaction to cues with two modalities from two different sympatrically occurring potential predators: heterospecific predatory Dendrobates tinctorius tadpoles and dragonfly larvae. We presented A. femoralis tadpoles with olfactory or visual cues, or a combination of the two, and compared their reaction to a water control in a between-individual design. In our trials, A. femoralis tadpoles reacted to multi-modal stimuli (a combination of visual and chemical information) originating from dragonfly larvae with avoidance but showed no reaction to uni-modal cues or cues from heterospecific tadpoles. In addition, visual cues from conspecifics increased swimming activity while cues from predators had no effect on tadpole activity. Our results show that A. femoralis tadpoles can innately recognize some predators and probably need both visual and chemical information to effectively avoid them. This is the first study looking at anti-predator behavior in poison frog tadpoles. We discuss how parental care might influence the expression of predator avoidance responses in tadpoles.
Journal of Experimental Biology
We are grateful to Véronique Helfer, Walter Hödl, Lisa Schretzmeyer and Julia Wotke, who assisted with fieldwork in French Guiana. This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) [P24788, T699 and P31518 to E.R.; P33728 to M.R.; J3827 to Thomas Bugnyar, Tecumseh Fitch and Ludwig Huber]; and by the Austrian Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Wirtschaft [IS761001 to J.O. (Tecumseh Fitch, Thomas Bugnyar and Ludwig Huber)]. A.P. was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 835530. S.A.R. was supported by the HT faculty, Lund University. We thank the CNRS Nouragues Ecological Research Station, which benefited from the ‘Investissement d'Avenir’ grants managed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (AnaEE France ANR-11-INBS-0001; Labex CEBA ANR-10-LABX-25-01). Open access funding provided by University of Vienna. Deposited in PMC for immediate release.
Szabo B, Mangione R, Rath M, et al. Naïve poison frog tadpoles use bi-modal cues to avoid insect predators but not heterospecific predatory tadpoles. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2021;224(24). doi:10.1242/jeb.243647
Szabo, B., Mangione, R., Rath, M., Pašukonis, A., Reber, S., Oh, J., … Ringler, E. (2021). Naïve poison frog tadpoles use bi-modal cues to avoid insect predators but not heterospecific predatory tadpoles. Journal of Experimental Biology. The Company of Biologists. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.243647
Szabo, B, R Mangione, M Rath, A Pašukonis, SA Reber, Jinook Oh, M Ringler, and E Ringler. “Naïve Poison Frog Tadpoles Use Bi-Modal Cues to Avoid Insect Predators but Not Heterospecific Predatory Tadpoles.” Journal of Experimental Biology. The Company of Biologists, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.243647.
B. Szabo et al., “Naïve poison frog tadpoles use bi-modal cues to avoid insect predators but not heterospecific predatory tadpoles,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 224, no. 24. The Company of Biologists, 2021.
Szabo B, Mangione R, Rath M, Pašukonis A, Reber S, Oh J, Ringler M, Ringler E. 2021. Naïve poison frog tadpoles use bi-modal cues to avoid insect predators but not heterospecific predatory tadpoles. Journal of Experimental Biology. 224(24), jeb243647.
Szabo, B., et al. “Naïve Poison Frog Tadpoles Use Bi-Modal Cues to Avoid Insect Predators but Not Heterospecific Predatory Tadpoles.” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 224, no. 24, jeb243647, The Company of Biologists, 2021, doi:10.1242/jeb.243647.
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