GIMPS and PrimeGrid are large-scale distributed projects dedicated to searching giant prime numbers, usually of special forms like Mersenne and Proth primes. The numbers in the current search-space are millions of digits large and the participating volunteers need to run resource-consuming primality tests. Once a candidate prime N has been found, the only way for another party to independently verify the primality of N used to be by repeating the expensive primality test. To avoid the need for second recomputation of each primality test, these projects have recently adopted certifying mechanisms that enable efficient verification of performed tests. However, the mechanisms presently in place only detect benign errors and there is no guarantee against adversarial behavior: a malicious volunteer can mislead the project to reject a giant prime as being non-prime. In this paper, we propose a practical, cryptographically-sound mechanism for certifying the non-primality of Proth numbers. That is, a volunteer can – parallel to running the primality test for N – generate an efficiently verifiable proof at a little extra cost certifying that N is not prime. The interactive protocol has statistical soundness and can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic. Our approach is based on a cryptographic primitive called Proof of Exponentiation (PoE) which, for a group G, certifies that a tuple (x,y,T)∈G2×N satisfies x2T=y (Pietrzak, ITCS 2019 and Wesolowski, J. Cryptol. 2020). In particular, we show how to adapt Pietrzak’s PoE at a moderate additional cost to make it a cryptographically-sound certificate of non-primality.
Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023
We are grateful to Pavel Atnashev for clarifying via e-mail several aspects of the primality tests implementated in the PrimeGrid project. Pavel Hubáček is supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences (RVO 67985840), the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the grant agreement no. 19-27871X, and by the Charles University project UNCE/SCI/004. Chethan Kamath is supported by Azrieli International Postdoctoral Fellowship, ISF grants 484/18 and 1789/19, and ERC StG project SPP: Secrecy Preserving Proofs.
PKC: Public-Key Cryptography
Atlanta, GA, United States
2023-05-07 – 2023-05-10
Hoffmann C, Hubáček P, Kamath C, Pietrzak KZ. Certifying giant nonprimes. In: Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023. Vol 13940. Springer Nature; 2023:530-553. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-31368-4_19
Hoffmann, C., Hubáček, P., Kamath, C., & Pietrzak, K. Z. (2023). Certifying giant nonprimes. In Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023 (Vol. 13940, pp. 530–553). Atlanta, GA, United States: Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-31368-4_19
Hoffmann, Charlotte, Pavel Hubáček, Chethan Kamath, and Krzysztof Z Pietrzak. “Certifying Giant Nonprimes.” In Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023, 13940:530–53. Springer Nature, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-31368-4_19.
C. Hoffmann, P. Hubáček, C. Kamath, and K. Z. Pietrzak, “Certifying giant nonprimes,” in Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2023, vol. 13940, pp. 530–553.
Hoffmann C, Hubáček P, Kamath C, Pietrzak KZ. 2023. Certifying giant nonprimes. Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023. PKC: Public-Key Cryptography, LNCS, vol. 13940, 530–553.
Hoffmann, Charlotte, et al. “Certifying Giant Nonprimes.” Public-Key Cryptography - PKC 2023, vol. 13940, Springer Nature, 2023, pp. 530–53, doi:10.1007/978-3-031-31368-4_19.