# The free energy of a dilute two-dimensional Bose gas

Mayer S. 2020. The free energy of a dilute two-dimensional Bose gas. Institute of Science and Technology Austria.

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We study the interacting homogeneous Bose gas in two spatial dimensions in the thermodynamic limit at fixed density. We shall be concerned with some mathematical aspects of this complicated problem in many-body quantum mechanics. More specifically, we consider the dilute limit where the scattering length of the interaction potential, which is a measure for the effective range of the potential, is small compared to the average distance between the particles. We are interested in a setting with positive (i.e., non-zero) temperature. After giving a survey of the relevant literature in the field, we provide some facts and examples to set expectations for the two-dimensional system. The crucial difference to the three-dimensional system is that there is no Bose–Einstein condensate at positive temperature due to the Hohenberg–Mermin–Wagner theorem. However, it turns out that an asymptotic formula for the free energy holds similarly to the three-dimensional case.
We motivate this formula by considering a toy model with δ interaction potential. By restricting this model Hamiltonian to certain trial states with a quasi-condensate we obtain an upper bound for the free energy that still has the quasi-condensate fraction as a free parameter. When minimizing over the quasi-condensate fraction, we obtain the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless critical temperature for superfluidity, which plays an important role in our rigorous contribution. The mathematically rigorous result that we prove concerns the specific free energy in the dilute limit. We give upper and lower bounds on the free energy in terms of the free energy of the non-interacting system and a correction term coming from the interaction. Both bounds match and thus we obtain the leading term of an asymptotic approximation in the dilute limit, provided the thermal wavelength of the particles is of the same order (or larger) than the average distance between the particles. The remarkable feature of this result is its generality: the correction term depends on the interaction potential only through its scattering length and it holds for all nonnegative interaction potentials with finite scattering length that are measurable. In particular, this allows to model an interaction of hard disks.

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2020-02-24

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Institute of Science and Technology Austria

Page

148

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IST-REx-ID

### Cite this

Mayer S. The free energy of a dilute two-dimensional Bose gas. 2020. doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:7514

Mayer, S. (2020).

*The free energy of a dilute two-dimensional Bose gas*. Institute of Science and Technology Austria. https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:7514Mayer, Simon. “The Free Energy of a Dilute Two-Dimensional Bose Gas.” Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2020. https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:7514.

S. Mayer, “The free energy of a dilute two-dimensional Bose gas,” Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2020.

Mayer, Simon.

*The Free Energy of a Dilute Two-Dimensional Bose Gas*. Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2020, doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:7514.**All files available under the following license(s):**

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