# Fluctuations in the spectrum of random matrices

Cipolloni G. 2021. Fluctuations in the spectrum of random matrices. Institute of Science and Technology Austria.

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*Thesis*|

*PhD*|

*Published*|

*English*

Author

Supervisor

Department

Grant

Series Title

ISTA Thesis

Abstract

In the first part of the thesis we consider Hermitian random matrices. Firstly, we consider sample covariance matrices XX∗ with X having independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) centred entries. We prove a Central Limit Theorem for differences of linear statistics of XX∗ and its minor after removing the first column of X. Secondly, we consider Wigner-type matrices and prove that the eigenvalue statistics near cusp singularities of the limiting density of states are universal and that they form a Pearcey process. Since the limiting eigenvalue distribution admits only square root (edge) and cubic root (cusp) singularities, this concludes the third and last remaining case of the Wigner-Dyson-Mehta universality conjecture. The main technical ingredients are an optimal local law at the cusp, and the proof of the fast relaxation to equilibrium of the Dyson Brownian motion in the cusp regime.
In the second part we consider non-Hermitian matrices X with centred i.i.d. entries. We normalise the entries of X to have variance N −1. It is well known that the empirical eigenvalue density converges to the uniform distribution on the unit disk (circular law). In the first project, we prove universality of the local eigenvalue statistics close to the edge of the spectrum. This is the non-Hermitian analogue of the TracyWidom universality at the Hermitian edge. Technically we analyse the evolution of the spectral distribution of X along the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck flow for very long time
(up to t = +∞). In the second project, we consider linear statistics of eigenvalues for macroscopic test functions f in the Sobolev space H2+ϵ and prove their convergence to the projection of the Gaussian Free Field on the unit disk. We prove this result for non-Hermitian matrices with real or complex entries. The main technical ingredients are: (i) local law for products of two resolvents at different spectral parameters, (ii) analysis of correlated Dyson Brownian motions.
In the third and final part we discuss the mathematically rigorous application of supersymmetric techniques (SUSY ) to give a lower tail estimate of the lowest singular value of X − z, with z ∈ C. More precisely, we use superbosonisation formula to give an integral representation of the resolvent of (X − z)(X − z)∗ which reduces to two and three contour integrals in the complex and real case, respectively. The rigorous analysis of these integrals is quite challenging since simple saddle point analysis cannot be applied (the main contribution comes from a non-trivial manifold). Our result
improves classical smoothing inequalities in the regime |z| ≈ 1; this result is essential to prove edge universality for i.i.d. non-Hermitian matrices.

Publishing Year

Date Published

2021-01-25

Acknowledgement

I gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 665385 and my advisor’s ERC Advanced Grant No. 338804.

Page

380

ISSN

IST-REx-ID

### Cite this

Cipolloni G. Fluctuations in the spectrum of random matrices. 2021. doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:9022

Cipolloni, G. (2021).

*Fluctuations in the spectrum of random matrices*. Institute of Science and Technology Austria. https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:9022Cipolloni, Giorgio. “Fluctuations in the Spectrum of Random Matrices.” Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2021. https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:9022.

G. Cipolloni, “Fluctuations in the spectrum of random matrices,” Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2021.

Cipolloni, Giorgio.

*Fluctuations in the Spectrum of Random Matrices*. Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2021, doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:9022.**All files available under the following license(s):**

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