Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major route of entry of cargos into cells and thus underpins many physiological processes. During endocytosis, an area of flat membrane is remodeled by proteins to create a spherical vesicle against intracellular forces. The protein machinery which mediates this membrane bending in plants is unknown. However, it is known that plant endocytosis is actin independent, thus indicating that plants utilize a unique mechanism to mediate membrane bending against high-turgor pressure compared to other model systems. Here, we investigate the TPLATE complex, a plant-specific endocytosis protein complex. It has been thought to function as a classical adaptor functioning underneath the clathrin coat. However, by using biochemical and advanced live microscopy approaches, we found that TPLATE is peripherally associated with clathrin-coated vesicles and localizes at the rim of endocytosis events. As this localization is more fitting to the protein machinery involved in membrane bending during endocytosis, we examined cells in which the TPLATE complex was disrupted and found that the clathrin structures present as flat patches. This suggests a requirement of the TPLATE complex for membrane bending during plant clathrin–mediated endocytosis. Next, we used in vitro biophysical assays to confirm that the TPLATE complex possesses protein domains with intrinsic membrane remodeling activity. These results redefine the role of the TPLATE complex and implicate it as a key component of the evolutionarily distinct plant endocytosis mechanism, which mediates endocytic membrane bending against the high-turgor pressure in plant cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
We gratefully thank Julie Neveu and Dr. Amanda Barranco of the Grégory Vert laboratory for help preparing plants in France, Dr. Zuzana Gelova for help and advice with protoplast generation, Dr. Stéphane Vassilopoulos and Dr. Florian Schur for advice regarding EM tomography, Alejandro Marquiegui Alvaro for help with material generation, and Dr. Lukasz Kowalski for generously gifting us the mWasabi protein. This research was supported by the Scientific Service Units of Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) through resources provided by the Electron Microscopy Facility, Lab Support Facility (particularly Dorota Jaworska), and the Bioimaging Facility. We acknowledge the Advanced Microscopy Facility of the Vienna BioCenter Core Facilities for use of the 3D SIM. For the mass spectrometry analysis of proteins, we acknowledge the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) Core Facility Mass Spectrometry. This work was supported by the following funds: A.J. is supported by funding from the Austrian Science Fund I3630B25 to J.F. P.M. and E.B. are supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche ANR-11-EQPX-0029 Morphoscope2 and ANR-10-INBS-04 France BioImaging. S.Y.B. is supported by the NSF No. 1121998 and 1614915. J.W. and D.V.D. are supported by the European Research Council Grant 682436 (to D.V.D.), a China Scholarship Council Grant 201508440249 (to J.W.), and by a Ghent University Special Research Co-funding Grant ST01511051 (to J.W.).
Johnson AJ, Dahhan DA, Gnyliukh N, et al. The TPLATE complex mediates membrane bending during plant clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2021;118(51). doi:10.1073/pnas.2113046118
Johnson, A. J., Dahhan, D. A., Gnyliukh, N., Kaufmann, W., Zheden, V., Costanzo, T., … Friml, J. (2021). The TPLATE complex mediates membrane bending during plant clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2113046118
Johnson, Alexander J, Dana A Dahhan, Nataliia Gnyliukh, Walter Kaufmann, Vanessa Zheden, Tommaso Costanzo, Pierre Mahou, et al. “The TPLATE Complex Mediates Membrane Bending during Plant Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2113046118.
A. J. Johnson et al., “The TPLATE complex mediates membrane bending during plant clathrin-mediated endocytosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118, no. 51. National Academy of Sciences, 2021.
Johnson AJ, Dahhan DA, Gnyliukh N, Kaufmann W, Zheden V, Costanzo T, Mahou P, Hrtyan M, Wang J, Aguilera Servin JL, van Damme D, Beaurepaire E, Loose M, Bednarek SY, Friml J. 2021. The TPLATE complex mediates membrane bending during plant clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118(51), e2113046118.
Johnson, Alexander J., et al. “The TPLATE Complex Mediates Membrane Bending during Plant Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118, no. 51, e2113046118, National Academy of Sciences, 2021, doi:10.1073/pnas.2113046118.
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