Resonant microwave spectroscopy of Al-InAs

Phan DT. 2023. Resonant microwave spectroscopy of Al-InAs. Institute of Science and Technology Austria.

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Thesis | PhD | Published | English
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ISTA Thesis
Superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures currently capture a significant amount of research interest and they serve as the physical platform in many proposals towards topological quantum computation. Despite being under extensive investigations, historically using transport techniques, the basic properties of the interface between the superconductor and the semiconductor remain to be understood. In this thesis, two separate studies on the Al-InAs heterostructures are reported with the first focusing on the physics of the material motivated by the emergence of a new phase, the Bogoliubov-Fermi surface. The second focuses on a technological application, a gate-tunable Josephson parametric amplifier. In the first study, we investigate the hypothesized unconventional nature of the induced superconductivity at the interface between the Al thin film and the InAs quantum well. We embed a two-dimensional Al-InAs hybrid system in a resonant microwave circuit allowing measurements of change in inductance. The behaviour of the resonance in a range of temperature and in-plane magnetic field has been studied and compared with the theory of conventional s-wave superconductor and a two-component theory that includes both contribution of the $s$-wave pairing in Al and the intraband $p \pm ip$ pairing in InAs. Measuring the temperature dependence of resonant frequency, no discrepancy is found between data and the conventional theory. We observe the breakdown of superconductivity due to an applied magnetic field which contradicts the conventional theory. In contrast, the data can be captured quantitatively by fitting to a two-component model. We find the evidence of the intraband $p \pm ip$ pairing in the InAs and the emergence of the Bogoliubov-Fermi surfaces due to magnetic field with the characteristic value $B^* = 0.33~\mathrm{T}$. From the fits, the sheet resistance of Al, the carrier density and mobility in InAs are determined. By systematically studying the anisotropy of the circuit response, we find weak anisotropy for $B < B^*$ and increasingly strong anisotropy for $B > B^*$ resulting in a pronounced two-lobe structure in polar plot of frequency versus field angle. Strong resemblance between the field dependence of dissipation and superfluid density hints at a hidden signature of the Bogoliubov-Fermi surface that is burried in the dissipation data. In the second study, we realize a parametric amplifier with a Josephson field effect transistor as the active element. The device's modest construction consists of a gated SNS weak link embedded at the center of a coplanar waveguide resonator. By applying a gate voltage, the resonant frequency is field-effect tunable over a range of 2 GHz. Modelling the JoFET minimally as a parallel RL circuit, the dissipation introduced by the JoFET can be quantitatively related to the gate voltage. We observed gate-tunable Kerr nonlinearity qualitatively in line with expectation. The JoFET amplifier has 20 dB of gain, 4 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and a 1dB compression point of -125.5 dBm when operated at a fixed resonant frequency. In general, the signal-to-noise ratio is improved by 5-7 dB when the JoFET amplifier is activated compared. The noise of the measurement chain and insertion loss of relevant circuit elements are calibrated to determine the expected and the real noise performance of the JoFET amplifier. As a quantification of the noise performance, the measured total input-referred noise of the JoFET amplifier is in good agreement with the estimated expectation which takes device loss into account. We found that the noise performance of the device reported in this document approaches one photon of total input-referred added noise which is the quantum limit imposed in nondegenerate parametric amplifier.
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Phan DT. Resonant microwave spectroscopy of Al-InAs. 2023. doi:10.15479/14547
Phan, D. T. (2023). Resonant microwave spectroscopy of Al-InAs. Institute of Science and Technology Austria.
Phan, Duc T. “Resonant Microwave Spectroscopy of Al-InAs.” Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2023.
D. T. Phan, “Resonant microwave spectroscopy of Al-InAs,” Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2023.
Phan DT. 2023. Resonant microwave spectroscopy of Al-InAs. Institute of Science and Technology Austria.
Phan, Duc T. Resonant Microwave Spectroscopy of Al-InAs. Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 2023, doi:10.15479/14547.
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