Plants, like other multicellular organisms, survive through a delicate balance between growth and defense against pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is a major defense signal in plants, and the perception mechanism as well as downstream signaling activating the immune response are known. Here, we identify a parallel SA signaling that mediates growth attenuation. SA directly binds to A subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), inhibiting activity of this complex. Among PP2A targets, the PIN2 auxin transporter is hyperphosphorylated in response to SA, leading to changed activity of this important growth regulator. Accordingly, auxin transport and auxin-mediated root development, including growth, gravitropic response, and lateral root organogenesis, are inhibited. This study reveals how SA, besides activating immunity, concomitantly attenuates growth through crosstalk with the auxin distribution network. Further analysis of this dual role of SA and characterization of additional SA-regulated PP2A targets will provide further insights into mechanisms maintaining a balance between growth and defense.
We thank Shigeyuki Betsuyaku (University of Tsukuba), Alison Delong (Brown University), Xinnian Dong (Duke University), Dolf Weijers (Wageningen University), Yuelin Zhang (UBC), and Martine Pastuglia (Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin) for sharing published materials; Jana Riederer for help with cantharidin physiological analysis; David Domjan for help with cloning pET28a-PIN2HL; Qing Lu for help with DARTS; Hana Kozubı´kova´ for technical support on SA derivative synthesis; Zuzana Vondra´ kova´ for technical support with tobacco cells; Lucia Strader (Washington University), Bert De Rybel (Ghent University), Bartel Vanholme (Ghent University), and Lukas Mach (BOKU) for helpful discussions; and bioimaging and life science facilities of IST Austria for continuous support. We gratefully acknowledge the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Center (NASC) for providing T-DNA insertional mutants. The DSC and SPR instruments were provided by the EQ-BOKU VIBT GmbH and the BOKU Core Facility for Biomolecular and Cellular Analysis, with help of Irene Schaffner. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program (ERC grant agreement no. 742985 to J.F.) and the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement no. 291734. S.T. was supported by a European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) long-term postdoctoral fellowship (ALTF 723-2015). O.N. was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (European Regional Development Fund-Project ‘‘Centre for Experimental Plant Biology’’ no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000738). J. Pospısil was supported by European Regional Development Fund Project ‘‘Centre for Experimental Plant Biology’’ (no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000738). J. Petrasek was supported by EU Operational Programme Prague-Competitiveness (no. CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519).
Tan S, Abas MF, Verstraeten I, et al. Salicylic acid targets protein phosphatase 2A to attenuate growth in plants. Current Biology. 2020;30(3):381-395.e8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.058
Tan, S., Abas, M. F., Verstraeten, I., Glanc, M., Molnar, G., Hajny, J., … Friml, J. (2020). Salicylic acid targets protein phosphatase 2A to attenuate growth in plants. Current Biology. Cell Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.058
Tan, Shutang, Melinda F Abas, Inge Verstraeten, Matous Glanc, Gergely Molnar, Jakub Hajny, Pavel Lasák, et al. “Salicylic Acid Targets Protein Phosphatase 2A to Attenuate Growth in Plants.” Current Biology. Cell Press, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.058.
S. Tan et al., “Salicylic acid targets protein phosphatase 2A to attenuate growth in plants,” Current Biology, vol. 30, no. 3. Cell Press, p. 381–395.e8, 2020.
Tan S, Abas MF, Verstraeten I, Glanc M, Molnar G, Hajny J, Lasák P, Petřík I, Russinova E, Petrášek J, Novák O, Pospíšil J, Friml J. 2020. Salicylic acid targets protein phosphatase 2A to attenuate growth in plants. Current Biology. 30(3), 381–395.e8.
Tan, Shutang, et al. “Salicylic Acid Targets Protein Phosphatase 2A to Attenuate Growth in Plants.” Current Biology, vol. 30, no. 3, Cell Press, 2020, p. 381–395.e8, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.058.
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